Journal of Management & Governance

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 543–556 | Cite as

On the foundation and early development of domestic and international new ventures

  • Erik S. Rasmussen
  • Tage Koed Madsen
  • Per Servais


The founding and early development of Domestic New Ventures and International New Ventures is examined based upon a large scale survey of Danish manufacturing firms. The firms are classified into five different categories and compared with regard to their foundation and development within the first 3 years. The article contributes with a demonstration of differences between these categories of firms with regard to the number and mindset of founders, the growth of the firm, and the networks of firm.


International new ventures Foundation Early growth Internationalization Manufacturing firms 


  1. Aspelund, A., Madsen, T. K., & Moen, O. (2007). A review of the foundation, international marketing strategies, and performance of international new ventures. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1423–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Autio, E., Sapienza, H., & Almeida, J. (2000). Effects of age at entry, knowledge intensity, and imitability on international growth. Academy of Management of Journal, 43, 909–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Autio, E. (2005). Creative tension: The significance of Ben Oviatt’s and Patricia McDougall’s article ‘toward a theory of international new ventures’. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., & Young, S. (2001). ‘Born-again global’ firms: An extension to the ‘born global’ phenomenon. Journal of International Management, 7, 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavusgil, S. T. (1998). Perspectives: Knowledge development in international marketing. Journal of International Marketing, 6(2), 103–112.Google Scholar
  6. Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A strategic approach to internationalization: A traditional versus a “Born-Global” approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimitratos, P., & Jones, M. V. (2005). Future directions for international entrepreneurship research. International Business Review, 14(2), 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm–a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johanson, J., & Mattsson, L. (1988). Internationalization in industrial systems—a network approach. In: Buckley, P. J. and Ghauri, P. N. (Eds), 1988. The internationalization of the firm: A reader Academic Press, London, pp. 303–321.Google Scholar
  10. Keupp, M. M. & Gassmann, O. (2009). The past and the future of international entrepreneurship: A review and suggestions for developing the field. Journal of Management, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 600–633.Google Scholar
  11. Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2004). Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 124–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. (1996). The born global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Advances in International Marketing, 8, 11–26.Google Scholar
  13. Korhonen, H., Luostarinen, R., & Welch, L. (1996). Internationalization of SMEs: Inward-outward patterns and government policy. Management International Review, 36, 315–329.Google Scholar
  14. Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S., & Servais, P. (2007). Firms’ degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance. Journal of World Business, 42, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liang, N., & Parkhe, A. (1997). Importer behavior: The neglected counterpart of international exchange, Journal of International Business Studies, (Third Quarter), 495–530.Google Scholar
  16. Lye, A., & Hamilton, R. T. (2000). Search and performance in international exchange. European Journal of Marketing, 34(1/2), 176–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Madsen, T. K. (2005). Internationalization research: The impact of the Carnegie School”. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 21(4), 373–384.Google Scholar
  18. Madsen, T. K., & Knudsen, T. (2002). Export strategy: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 18, 475–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Madsen, T. K., Rasmussen, E. S., & Servais, P. (2000). Differences and similarities between born globals and other types of exporters. Advances in International Marketing, 10, 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The Internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review, 6(6), 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship: The intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 902–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moen, O., & Servais, P. (2002). Born global or gradual global? Examining the export behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of International Marketing, 10(3), 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1), 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Porter, M. E. (2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rennie, M. W. (1993). Global competitiveness: Born global,” McKinsey Quarterly,(4), 45–52.Google Scholar
  26. Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G. A. (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993–2003) of scientific inquiry? International Business Review, 14(2), 147–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scully, J., & Fawcett, S. (1994). International procurement strategies: Challenges and opportunities for the small firm. Journal of Production & Inventory Management, 35, 39–46.Google Scholar
  28. Westhead, P. (1995). Exporting and non-exporting small firms in Great Britain. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 1(2), 6–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zahra, S. A. (2005). A theory of international new ventures: A decade of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 1(36), 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. (2000). International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 925–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik S. Rasmussen
    • 1
  • Tage Koed Madsen
    • 1
  • Per Servais
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marketing and ManagementUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark

Personalised recommendations