Breastfeeding Duration and the Theory of Planned Behavior and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Framework: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies
Introduction Numerous studies have shown that the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy (BSE) Framework can effectively identify relationships between maternal psychosocial factors and breastfeeding initiation. However, the ability of these theories to predict breastfeeding duration has not been adequately analyzed. The aim of the review was to examine the utility of the constructs of TRA/TPB and BSE to predict breastfeeding duration. Methods We conducted a literature search using Pubmed (1980-May 2015), Medline (1966-May 2015), CINAHL (1980-May 2015), EMBASE (1980-May 2015) and PsycINFO (1980-May 2015). We selected studies that were observational studies without randomization or blinding, using TRA, TPB or BSE as the framework for analysis. Only studies reporting on breastfeeding duration were included. Results Thirty studies were selected, which include four using TRA, 10 using TPB, 15 using BSE and one using a combination of TPB and BSE. Maternal intention and breastfeeding self-efficacy were found to be important predictors of breastfeeding duration. Inconsistent findings were found in assessing the relationship between maternal attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and breastfeeding duration. Discussion The inadequacy of these constructs in explaining breastfeeding duration indicates a need to further explore the role of maternal self-determination in breastfeeding behavior.
KeywordsBreastfeeding Psychosocial factors Intention Self-efficacy Self-determination theory Systematic review
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics.Google Scholar
- Aquilina, S. (2011). The relationship between self-efficacy and breastfeeding duration. (Doctoral degree), Carlow University.Google Scholar
- Bai, D. L., Fong, D. Y., Lok, K. Y., & Tarrant, M. (2016). Relationship between the Infant feeding preferences of Chinese mothers’ immediate social network and early breastfeeding cessation. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(2), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334416630537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Donnan, P. T., Dalzell, J., Symon, A., Rauchhaus, P., Monteith-Hodge, E., Kellett, G., … Whitford, H. M. (2013). Prediction of initiation and cessation of breastfeeding from late pregnancy to 16 weeks: The feeding your baby (FYB) cohort study. British Medical Journal Open. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003274.Google Scholar
- Finigan, V. (2003). Providing breastfeeding support to ethnically diverse groups of mothers. Professional nurse, 18(9), 524–528.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Boston: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, M. (1967). Readings in attitude theory and measurement. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Glassman, M. E., McKearney, K., Saslaw, M., & Sirota, D. R. (2014). Impact of breastfeeding self-efficacy and sociocultural factors on early breastfeeding in an urban, predominantly Dominican community. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9(6), 301–307. https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2014.0015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Institute OHR (2014). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clincal_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed date 20 Jul 2015.
- Johns Hopkins University. School of Hygiene Public Health, & Faden, R. R. (1988). Determinants of Infant Feeding: Breast VS Bottle.Google Scholar
- Kingston, D., Dennis, C. L., & Sword, W. (2007). Exploring breast-feeding self-efficacy. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 21(3), 207–215. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JPN.0000285810.13527.a7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawton, R., Ashley, L., Dawson, S., Waiblinger, D., & Conner, M. (2012). Employing an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict breastfeeding intention, initiation, and maintenance in White British and South-Asian mothers living in Bradford. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17(4), 854–871. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02083.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McMillan, B., Conner, M., Green, J., Dyson, L., Renfrew, M., & Woolridge, M. (2009). Using an extended theory of planned behaviour to inform interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding uptake in primiparas experiencing material deprivation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(Pt 2), 379–403. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910708x336112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- O’Brien, M., & Fallon, A. (2005). The effect of breastfeeding self-efficacy on breastfeeding duration. Birth Issues, 14(4), 135–142.Google Scholar
- Pollard, D. L., & Guill, M. (2009). The relationship between baseline self-efficacy and breastfeeding duration. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, 9(4), 1–6.Google Scholar
- UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative. (n.d.) The Baby Friendly Initiative. Accessed 21 Jan 2015. Available at http://www.babyfriendly.org.uk.
- Williams, G. C., Lynch, M. F., McGregor, H. A., Ryan, R. M., Sharp, D., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Validation of the “important other” climate questionnaire: Assessing autonomy support for health-related change. Families, Systems, and Health, 24(2), 179–194. https://doi.org/10.1037/1091-75126.96.36.199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1981). International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2003). Global Strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding.Google Scholar