Paternal Lifelong Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight Rates: Relevance to the African-American Women’s Birth Outcome Disadvantage
Objectives To determine the relation of paternal lifelong socioeconomic position (SEP) to the racial disparity in low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) rates. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of infants (1989–1991) and their parents (1956–1976) with appended U.S. census income data. The neighborhood incomes of father’s place of residence at the time of his birth and at the time of his infant’s birth were used to measure of lifelong SEP. Population attributable risk (PAR) percentages were calculated to estimate the percentage of LBW infants attributable to paternal low SEP. Results In Cook County, infants (n = 10,168) born to fathers with a lifelong high SEP had a LBW rate of 3.7 %. LBW rates rose among infants born to fathers with early-life (n = 7224), adulthood (n = 2913), or lifelong (n = 7288) low SEP: 5.2, 6.9, and 9.3 %, respectively. The adjusted (controlling for maternal demographic characteristics) OR of LBW for fathers with an early-life, adulthood, or lifelong low (compared to lifelong high) SEP equaled 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 1.5 (1.3, 1.9), and 2.0 (1.7, 2.3), respectively. The PAR percentages of LBW for paternal low SEP were 40 and 9 % among African-American and White mothers, respectively. Among fathers with a lifelong high SEP, the adjusted OR of LBW for African-American (compared to White) mothers was 1.1 (0.7, 1.7). Conclusions Low paternal SEP is a novel risk factor for infant LBW independent of maternal demographic characteristics. This phenomenon is particularly relevant to the African-American women’s birth outcome disadvantage.
KeywordsAfrican-American Low birth weight Paternal socioeconomic position Racial disparity
- 1.MacDorman, M. F., Mathews, T. J., Mohangoo, A. D., & Zeitlin, J. (2014). International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010. National vital statistics reports (Vol 63, no. 5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2014.Google Scholar
- 2.Kochanek, K. D, Murphy, S. L, Xu, J. Q, & Arias E. (2014). Mortality in the United States, 2013. NCHS data brief, no 178. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- 3.www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/maternal-infant-and-child-health/objectives. Accessed April 14, 2015,
- 11.Shah, P., & On behalf of the Knowledge Synthesis, Group on determinants of prematurity/low birth weight births. (2010). Paternal factors and low birth weight, preterm, and small for gestational age births: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202, 103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Chaplin, D., & Klasik, D. (2006). Gender gaps in college and high school graduation by race, combining public and private schools: The Urban Institute/Mathmatica Policy Research. Fayetteville, AR. Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
- 15.www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/99statab/sec04.pdf. Accessed January 16, 2016.
- 16.Mincy, R. (2006). Black males left behind. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
- 17.Jewel, K. S. (2003). The survival African-American family: The institutional impact of U.S. social policy. Connecticut: Praeger.Google Scholar
- 18.Maurer, M., & King, R. (2007). Uneven justice: States rates of incarceration by race and ethnicity. Research and advocacy for reform. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.Google Scholar
- 20.SAS Institute Inc. (2000). SAS 9.1.3 SAS/STAT. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
- 21.Rothman, K., & Greenland, S. (1998). Modern epidemiology. New York, NY: Lipponcott, Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
- 22.Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- 23.West, J., Lawlor, D. A., Farily, L., & Wright, J. (2014). Differences in socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics between Pakistani and White British women in the Born in Bradford prospective cohort study: The influence of the woman’s, her partner’s and their parents’ place of birth. BMJ Open, 4, e004805. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004805.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar