Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 97–105 | Cite as

Why Are Half of Women Interested in Participating in Group Prenatal Care?

  • Sarah D. McDonald
  • Wendy Sword
  • Leyla N. Eryuzlu
  • Binod Neupane
  • Joseph Beyene
  • Anne B. Biringer



To determine the likelihood of participating in group prenatal care (GPC) and associated factors among low-risk women receiving traditional prenatal care from obstetricians, family physicians or midwives, and to determine factors associated with likelihood of participating.


Prior to completing a self-administered questionnaire, a 2-min compiled video of GPC was shown to pregnant women receiving traditional prenatal care. Data were collected on opinions of current prenatal care, GPC, and demographics. Biologically plausible variables with a p value ≤0.20 were entered in the multivariable logistic regression model and those with a p value <0.05 were retained.


Of 477 respondents, 234 [49.2 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 44.6–53.6 %] reported being “definitely” or “probably likely” to participate in GPC. Women were more likely to participate in GPC if they had at least postsecondary education [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.84, 95 % CI 1.05–3.24], had not discussed labour with their care provider (aOR 1.67, 95 % CI 1.12–2.44), and valued woman-centeredness (“fairly important” aOR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.77–4.49; “very important” aOR 4.10, 95 % CI 2.45–6.88). Women placed high importance on learning components of GPC. The majority would prefer to be with similar women, especially in age. About two-thirds would prefer to have support persons attend GPC and over half would be comfortable with male partners.


Approximately half of women receiving traditional prenatal care were interested in participating in GPC. Our findings will hopefully assist providers interested in optimizing satisfaction with traditional prenatal care and GPC by identifying important elements of each, and thus help engage women to consider GPC.


Antenatal care CenteringPregnancy Group prenatal care Traditional prenatal care Women’s preferences 



We thank the women who shared their thoughts with us and the clinic staff for their support. The authors acknowledge salary support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) New Investigator Salary Award and the Ada Slaight and Slaight Family Foundation. Neither had any role in the conduct of the analyses, writing of the report, interpretation of data or decision to submit the manuscript. The authors report no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10995_2015_1807_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


  1. 1.
    Novick, G. (2004). CenteringPregnancy and the current state of prenatal care. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 49(5), 405–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walker, D. S., & Worrell, R. (2008). Promoting healthy pregnancies through perinatal groups: A comparison of CenteringPregnancy(R) group prenatal care and childbirth education classes. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 17(1), 27–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Handler, A., Rosenberg, D., Raube, K., & Lyons, S. (2003). Prenatal care characteristics and African-American women’s satisfaction with care in a managed care organization. Womens Health Issues, 13(3), 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hildingsson, I., & Radestad, I. (2005). Swedish women’s satisfaction with medical and emotional aspects of antenatal care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(3), 239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Centering Healthcare Institute. (2014). The Centering Model. Accessed 31 Mar 2014.
  6. 6.
    Teate, A., Leap, N., Rising, S. S., & Homer, C. S. (2011). Women’s experiences of group antenatal care in Australia—The CenteringPregnancy Pilot Study. Midwifery, 27(2), 138–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rising, S. S. (1998). Centering pregnancy. An interdisciplinary model of empowerment. Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 43(1), 46–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McNeil, D. A., Vekved, M., Dolan, S. M., Siever, J., Horn, S., & Tough, S. C. (2013). A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 13(Suppl 1), S6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rising, S. S., Kennedy, H. P., & Klima, C. S. (2004). Redesigning prenatal care through CenteringPregnancy. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 49(5), 398–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruiz-Mirazo, E., Lopez-Yarto, M., & McDonald, S. D. (2012). Group prenatal care versus individual prenatal care: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 34(3), 223–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kotelchuck, M. (1994). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index: Its US distribution and association with low birthweight. American Journal of Public Health, 84(9), 1486–1489.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ickovics, J. R., Kershaw, T. S., Westdahl, C., Magriples, U., Massey, Z., Reynolds, H., & Rising, S. S. (2007). Group prenatal care and perinatal outcomes: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110(2 Pt 1), 330–339.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McNeil, D. A., Vekved, M., Dolan, S. M., Siever, J., Horn, S., & Tough, S. C. (2012). Getting more than they realized they needed: A qualitative study of women’s experience of group prenatal care. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 12, 17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trudnak, T. E., Arboleda, E., Kirby, R. S., & Perrin, K. (2013). Outcomes of Latina women in CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care compared with individual prenatal care. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 58(4), 396–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tanner-Smith, E. E., Steinka-Fry, K. T., & Lipsey, M. W. (2014). The effects of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care on gestational age, birth weight, and fetal demise. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(4), 801–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tandon, S. D., Colon, L., Vega, P., Murphy, J., & Alonso, A. (2012). Birth outcomes associated with receipt of group prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 57(5), 476–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Larroque, B., Ancel, P. Y., Marret, S., Marchand, L., Andre, M., Arnaud, C., et al. (2008). Neurodevelopmental disabilities and special care of 5-year-old children born before 33 weeks of gestation (the EPIPAGE study): A longitudinal cohort study. Lancet, 371(9615), 813–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saigal, S., & Doyle, L. W. (2008). An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood. Lancet, 371(9608), 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes (2007). In R. E. Behrman & A. S. Butler (Eds.), Preterm birth: Causes, consequences and prevention. Washington DC: National Academies Press (US).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Picklesimer, A. H., Billings, D., Hale, N., Blackhurst, D., & Covington-Kolb, S. (2012). The effect of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care on preterm birth in a low-income population. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 206(5), 415–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shields, S. G., & Candib, L. M. (2010). Women-centered care in pregnancy and childbirth. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2015). Strong start for mother and newborns initiative: General information. Accessed 23 Mar 2015.
  23. 23.
    Statistics Canada. (2011). Census profile. Accessed 5 July 2013.
  24. 24.
    Statistics Canada. (2014). Median total income, by family type, by census metropolitan area (All census families). July 23, 2014.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Statistics Canada. (2014). Family charateristics summary annual (number unless otherwise noted), cansim database. July 22, 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Statistics Canada. (2014). National Household Survey (NHS) profile, Hamilton, C, Ontario, 2011. April 28, 2014.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Statistics Canada. (2014). National Household Survey (NHS) profile, Brantford, CY, Ontario, 2011. April 28, 2014.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Osterman, M. J. K., Curtin, S. C., & Matthews, T. J. (2015). Division of vital statistics. Births: Final data for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports, 64(1), 1–101.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grady, M. A., & Bloom, K. C. (2004). Pregnancy outcomes of adolescents enrolled in a CenteringPregnancy program. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 49(5), 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fincham, J. E. (2008). Response rates and responsiveness for surveys, standards, and the Journal. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(2), 43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McDonald, S. D., Sword, W., Eryuzlu, L. E., & Biringer, A. B. (2014). A qualitative descriptive study of the group prenatal care experience: Perceptions of women with low-risk pregnancies and their midwives. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 14, 334.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vonderheid, S. C., Carrie, S. K., Norr, K. F., Grady, M. A., & Westdahl, C. M. (2013). Using focus groups and social marketing to strengthen promotion of group prenatal care. Advances in Nursing Science: ANS, 36(4), 320–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Novick, G., Sadler, L. S., Kennedy, H. P., Cohen, S. S., Groce, N. E., & Knafl, K. A. (2011). Women’s experience of group prenatal care. Qualitative Health Research, 21(1), 97–116.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah D. McDonald
    • 1
  • Wendy Sword
    • 2
  • Leyla N. Eryuzlu
    • 3
  • Binod Neupane
    • 4
  • Joseph Beyene
    • 5
  • Anne B. Biringer
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Radiology, and Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of NursingMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsHamiltonCanada
  6. 6.Department of Family and Community MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations