An Investigation into the Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Gestational Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Living in a Peri-Urban Settlement, South Africa
- 250 Downloads
Maternal and child mortality rates are still unacceptably high in South Africa. The health status of women in peri-urban areas has been influenced by political and socio-economic factors. Examining socio-economic variables (SEV) in a population aids in the explanation of the impact of social structures on an individual. Risk factors can then be established and pregnant women in these higher risk groups can be identified and given additional support during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SEV and gestational Body Mass Index (GBMI) in a peri-urban settlement, South Africa. This was a sub-study of the Philani Mentor Mothers’ Study (2009–2010). Maternal anthropometry and SEV were obtained from 1,145 participants. Multinomial regression was used to analyse the data. Household income was the only SEV that was significantly associated with GBMI. The odds of being underweight rather than normal weight during pregnancy increase by a factor of 2.145 (P < 0.05) for those who had a household income lower than R2000 per month. All other SEV were not significant. Logistic regression was therefore not carried out. Women who had a lower income were at risk of having a lower GBMI during pregnancy. This can lead to adverse birth outcomes such as premature birth, low birth weight, height and head circumference. Public health policy needs to be developed to include optimal nutrition health promotion strategies targeting women with a low income ante and post-natally. Once implemented, they need to be evaluated to assess the impact on maternal and child mortality.
KeywordsSocioeconomic variables Peri-urban settlement Gestational body mass index Pregnancy
The Philani Mentor Mothers’ Study was Funded by National Institution of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
Conflict of interest
- 3.Department of Social Development, Provincial Government of the Western Cape. Khayelitsha population register update (KPRU) Project. health register. Available from http://www.capegateway.gov.za/eng/publications/reports_research/K/142132 (Accessed October 2010).
- 4.Malhotra, R., Hoyo, C., Ostbye, T., Hughes, G., Schwartz, D., Tsolekile, L., et al. (2008). Determinants of obesity in an urban township of South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21(4), 315–320.Google Scholar
- 5.Information and Knowledge Management Department. A population profile of Khayelitsha: Socio-economic information from the 2001 Census (2005) Available from http://web.capetown.gov.za/eDocuments/A_Population_Profile_of_Khayetlitsha_1052006142120_359.pdf (Accessed June 2010).
- 6.Yach, D., Coetzee, N., Hugo-Hamman, C. T., Fisher, S. A., & Kibel, M. A. (1990). Identifying children at risk in peri-urban Cape Town. South African Journal of Epidemiology and Infections, 5(1), 6–8.Google Scholar
- 9.Department of health. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Pretoria: National Department of Health 2008 Available from URL http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/2003/sadhs03/ (Accessed June 2011).
- 10.Cruz, M. L. S., Harris, D. R., Read, J. S., Mussi-Pinhata, M. M., Suci, R. C. M., et al. (2008). Mussi-Pinhata MM, Succi RCM, NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) perinatal Study Group. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study. Nutrition Research, 27(11), 685–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Med Sans Frontier (2011) Khayelitsha 2001-2011. Activity report 10 years of HIV/TB car at primary health care level. Available from: http://www.health-e.org.za/documents/6eadc65d79595b1a2cb0c86337161a4c.pdf (Accessed June 2011).
- 14.Lee, R. D., & Nieman, D. C. (2007). Nutritional assessment (4th ed.). Boston: Macraw Hill.Google Scholar
- 15.City of Cape Town. Sustainability report 2005. Available from: http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/EnvironmentalResourceManagement/publications/Documents/Sustainability_Report_2005.pdf (Accessed May 2011).
- 20.Panaretto, K., Melvina Mitchel, H. L., Larkins, S., Manessis, V., Buettner, P., & Watson, D. (2006). Risk factors for preterm, low birth weight and small for gestational age birth in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in Townsville. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 30(2), 163–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bourne, L. T., Lambert, E. V., & Steyn, K. (2007). Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition? Public Health Nutrition, 5(1A), 157–162.Google Scholar
- 23.Department of health statistics. Available from http://www.hst.gov.za (Accessed June 2011).
- 25.Department of Education. (2007). Accessed June 2011, from http://www.nuffic.nl/international-organizations/docs/niche/programme-outlines/south-africa/strategic-plan-2007-2011.pdf.
- 28.Engelbrect M., Summerton J., Meyer K., Heunis C., Janse van Rensberg-Bonthuyzen. P.H.C. Delivery in the Khayelitsha Urban Renewal Site, Western Cape Mapping gaps in the IMCI, Women’s Health, TB, STI, HIV/AIDS and EDL programmes. Available from http://www.uovs.ac.za/faculties/humanities/chsrd (Accessed June 2011).
- 30.Petry, C. (2010). Gestational diabetes: risk factors and recent advances in its genetics and treatment. British Journal of Nutrition, 21, 1–13.Google Scholar
- 35.Kousta, E., Lawrence, N. J., Penny, A., Millaner, B., Mulnier, H., Johnston, D. G., et al. (2000). Women with a history of gestational diabetes of European and South Asian origin are shorter than women with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabetic Medicine, 17, 792–797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.South African Department of Home Affairs. Registration of customery marriages. Available on http://www.home-affairs.gov.za/custom_marriage.asp (Accessed June 2011).
- 46.Boulle A., Van Cutsem G., Hilderbrand K., Cragg C., Abrahams M., Mathee S., et al. (2010).Google Scholar