Factors Involved in the Persistence of Overweight among Children Enrolled in the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children
- 148 Downloads
Objective To investigate differences between children ages 2 and 5 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Texas whose overweight persisted and those whose overweight resolved. Methods The study involved administration of a survey to a randomly selected stratified sample of parents and guardians of WIC children residing in the 11 public health regions in Texas. Subjects volunteered to complete the survey during a scheduled WIC appointment. A total of 445 surveys were completed, 206 by parents/guardians of children classified as having persistent overweight, and 239 by those with children classified as having non-persistent overweight. Results and Conclusions A higher percentage of children in the non-persistent group were male, younger, white, consumed more dairy products, had a mother living in the household, and a family member who participated in physical activity with the child. A higher percentage of parents of children in the persistent group reported that they had been told their child was overweight and received information about overweight in children from the WIC staff. A higher percentage also felt their child was overweight, that their child’s weight could be improved, that their child’s weight did not improve in the last year and were concerned about their child’s weight. This study identified several variables associated with overweight persistence. WIC personnel and other public health educators can utilize these findings to identify overweight children who are at higher risk for non-improvement and to plan more effective intervention strategies for the population studied.
KeywordsWIC Survey Overweight Persistence Non-persistence
The authors would like to thank the Texas Department of Health for their funding contributions and Drs. Du Feng and Kenny Wu for their statistical expertise.
- 2.Mei, Z., Scanlon, K. S., Grummer-Strawn, L. M., Freedman, D. S., & Trowbridge, F. L. (1998). Increasing prevalence of overweight among US low-income preschool children: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 1983 to 1995. Pediatrics, 101(1), Available at www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/99/4/el. doi: 10.1542/peds.101.1.e12.
- 6.Polhamus, B., Dalenius, K., Thompson, D., Scanlon, K., Borland, E., Smith, B., & Grummer-Strawn, L. (2004). Pediatric nutrition surveillance 2002 report. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
- 7.Cole, N. (2003). The prevalence of overweight among WIC children. United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. The Office of Analysis, Nutrition and Evaluation, Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series, Report no. WIC-01-PCOM. July 2001. Available at: www.abtassoc.com/reports/ES-overwgt.pdf. Accessed October 17.
- 10.Gou, S. S., Roche, A. F., Chumela, W. C., Gardner, J. D., & Siervogel, R. M. (1994). The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 years. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 810–819.Google Scholar
- 18.Oliveira, V., Racine, E., Olmsted, J., & Ghelfi, L. M. (2002). The WIC program: Background, trend, and issues. United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report number 27.Google Scholar
- 22.Klesges, R. C., Eck, L. H., Hanson, C. L., Haddock, C. K., & Klesges, L. M. (1990). Effects of obesity, social interactions, and physical environment on physical activity in preschoolers. Health Physics, 9, 435–449.Google Scholar
- 23.Gortmaker, S. L., Must, A., Sobol, A. M., Peterson, K., Golditz, G. A., & Dietz, W. H. (1996). Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150(4), 356–362.Google Scholar
- 24.Andersen, R. E., Crespo, C. J., Bartlett, S. J., Cheskin, L. J., & Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(12), 938–942. doi: 10.1001/jama.279.12.938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Alexy, U., Sichert-Hellert, W., Kersting, M., Manz, F., & Schoch, G. (1999). Fruit juice consumption and the prevalence of obesity and short stature in German preschool children: Results of the DONALD Study Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometrical Longitudinally Designed. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 29(3), 343–349. doi: 10.1097/00005176-199909000-00019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Jarman-Hill, G., Shriver, B. J., & Arnett, D. B. (2006). Examining intentions to use CoQ10 amongst breast cancer patients. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(3), 313–321.Google Scholar