Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 19–26 | Cite as

Accessibility of Family Planning Services: Impact of Structural and Organizational Factors

  • Lorraine V. Klerman
  • Kay A. Johnson
  • Chiang-hua Chang
  • Phyllis Wright-Slaughter
  • David C. Goodman
Original Paper


Objectives: This study sought to determine whether selected structural and organizational characteristics of publicly available family planning facilities are associated with greater availability.

Methods: A survey was sent to 726 publicly available family planning facilities in four states. These included local health departments, federally qualified health centers (FQHC), Planned Parenthood sites, hospital outpatient departments, and freestanding women’s health centers. Usable responses were obtained from 526 sites for a response rate of 72.5%. Availability variables included the provision of primary care services; the contraceptives offered; professional staffing; scheduling, waiting time, and transportation; and cultural congruence and competency. The structural and organizational variables were state, type of organization, and funding source.

Results: Some states were more likely to offer emergency contraception while others were more likely to have weekend hours. FQHCs were most likely to provide primary care and Planned Parenthood sites most likely to offer emergency contraception. Title X funding was associated with increased likelihood of providing emergency contraception and staffing by midlevel practitioners and registered nurses.

Conclusions: This study found that availability varied by structural and organizational variables, many of which are determined by federal and state policies. Revising some of these policies might increase utilization of family planning facilities.


Family planning Unintended births Teenage births Community health centers Title X 



This research was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MM-0606-03/03. The authors wish to thank the officials and staffs in the four states whose collaboration made this study possible: Alabama, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Washington. They also wish to acknowledge the assistance of Marie-Claire Rosenberg in conducting the facilities survey.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorraine V. Klerman
    • 1
  • Kay A. Johnson
    • 2
  • Chiang-hua Chang
    • 2
  • Phyllis Wright-Slaughter
    • 2
  • David C. Goodman
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy, The Heller School for Social Policy and ManagementBrandeis UniversityWalthamUSA
  2. 2.The Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences and the Department of PediatricsDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  3. 3.Dartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

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