The co-influence of the natural, built, and linguistic landscape: indexing security
This study examines physical aspects of place and how such visible aspects work to index a discourse of insecurity, including an insider–outsider binary, particularly through security signs in the linguistic landscape (LL). Our main focus is the relationship between policy and the uses of written language that appear in the LL in different census tracts in Palm Springs, California. Data includes community demographic and discourse data, geographical information systems maps, and comprehensive photography of the three census tracts, which include contiguous low income, middle-income, and high-income tracts. Findings demonstrate that the discourse of insecurity is indexed differently in each of the tracts as explicit and implicit policies are enacted in the LL based in the way that residents in each tract reproduce a discourse of insecurity. Implications include the effects that these different ways of indexing the discourse of insecurity through the LL may have on social inequality.
KeywordsIdeology Identity Linguistic landscape Power Public health
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Community Survey. (2009). US Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/data_main/.
- Augé, M. (1995). Non-places: Introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity. London and New York: Verso Books.Google Scholar
- Blakely, E., & Snyder, M. (1999). Fortress America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
- Bucholtz, M. (1999). You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4), 443–460.Google Scholar
- Butler, J. (1997). Excitable speech: A politics of the performative. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Curtin, M. L. (2010). Languages on display: Indexical signs, identities, and he linguistic landscape of Taipei. In E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery (pp. 243–259). New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: The militarization of urban space. In M. Sorkin (Ed.), Variations on a theme park (pp. 154–180). New York: Noonday Press.Google Scholar
- Doyle, S., Kelly-Schwartz, A., Schlossberg., M., Stockard, J. (2006). Active community environments and health: the relationship of walkable and safe communities to individual health. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 19–31.Google Scholar
- Feld, S., & Basso, K. (1996). Senses of place. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (1975). Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Health Assessment Resource Center. (2008). Community Health Monitor 2007. Palm Desert, CA: HARC, Inc.Google Scholar
- Johnstone, B. (1990). Stories, community, and place: Narratives from middle America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1997). Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality: An empirical study. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16(1), 23–49.Google Scholar
- Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space (D. Nicholson-Smith, Trans.). 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Northridge, M. E., Stover, G. N, Rosenthal, J. A., & Sherard, D. (2003). Environmental Equity and Health: Understanding Complexity and Moving Forward. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 209–214Google Scholar
- Ochs, E. (1992). Indexing gender. In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (Eds.), Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon (pp. 335–358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Rodríguez, J. (2009). Interpreting the linguistic traits of linguistic landscapes as ethnolinguistic vitality: methodological approach. Revista electrónica de lingüística aplicada, 8, 1–15.Google Scholar
- Saelens, B., & Handy, S. L. (2008). Built environment correlates of walking: A review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 6 suppl, S550–S566.Google Scholar
- Schiffman, H. F. (1996). Linguistic culture and language policy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shohamy, E. (2006). Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Spinzi, C., & Terminiello, E. (2010). It’s up to all of us: Social identity in the language of public warnings. Linguistic Insights Studies in Language and Communication, 125, 109–138.Google Scholar
- Spolsky, B. (2004). Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Schieffelin, B. B., Woolard, K. A., & Kroskrity, P. V. (Eds.). (1998). Language ideologies: Practice and theory. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Trumper-Hecht, N. (2009). Constructing national identity in mixed cities in Israel: Arabic on signs in the public space of upper Nazareth. In E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. Crime in the United States, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2011. http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/09cius.htm.
- Wæver, O. (1995). Securitization and desecuritization. In R. Lipschutz (Ed.), On security (pp. 46–86). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar