Evaluation of Antimicrobial Peptides at the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Children


Aim of study was evaluation of urine levels of HD5 and HNP 1–3 at diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. Forty-two urine samples with positive urine culture were patient group whereas 46 urine samples with negative urine culture were control group. Demographic characteristics, automated urinalysis, laboratory results were recorded. All urine samples were evaluated microscopically by a single physician. Median values of HD5 levels in urine of patient and control groups were 187.8 pg/mg and 159.1 pg/mg respectively (p = 0.291). Median value of HNP 1–3 levels in urine of patient and control groups were 8875 pg/mg and 5465 pg/mg respectively (p = 0.145). Results of ROC analysis for HD5 levels and HNP1-3 levels demonstrated that they were not good enough for diagnosis of UTI (AUC = 0.571, p = 0.291 for HD5 and AUC = 0.590, p = 0.145 for HNP1-3 levels). Both positive result for leukocyte esterase and nitrite tests had highest sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97.8%) for diagnosis of UTI. The most frequent complaint was dysuria (28.66%) in the patient group. Manual urine examination was found to be more successful than automated urinalysis for predicting growth of microorganism in urine culture. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated microorganism in urine. Both positive result for leukocyte esterase and nitrit test had highest sensitivity and specificity to define UTI. Bacteriuria in manuel urine microscopy had higher sensitivity and specificity than that of automated urinalysis. Urine HD5 and HNP1-3 levels were not good to define UTI in children.

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Antimicrobial peptides


C reactive protein


Human alpha defensin-5


Human neutrophil peptide 1–3


Urinary tract ınfection


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SK and AUG designed the study. SK collected urine samples and done urine microskoby. OOG and PK studied antimicrobial peptides in urine. SK and AUG evaluated results. AUG draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Arife Uslu Gökceoğlu.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Review Board of University Of Health Sciences Ankara Child Health and Hematology-Oncology Education and Research Hospital (Number: 2018-56).

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Informed consent was obtained from parents.

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Kara, S., Gökceoğlu, A.U., Demirel, Ö.Ö. et al. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Peptides at the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Children. Int J Pept Res Ther (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-020-10083-x

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  • Urinary tract infection
  • Antimicrobial peptide
  • Human neutrophil peptide 1–3 (HNP 1–3)
  • Human alpha defensin 5 (HD5)