Betaine Elevates Ovarian Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Demonstrates Methyl Donor Effect in Non-Pregnant Rats

  • Masoud Alirezaei
  • Parvin Niknam
  • Gholamali Jelodar


Chronic alcoholism leads to infertility in male and female rats, and antioxidant enzymes form the first line against oxidative stress in organisms. In recent years, betaine has shown beneficial effects on various tissues, and this study has attempted to clarify antioxidant and methyl donor properties of betaine in the rat ovary. For this purpose, the sexually matured Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into Control, Ethanol (EtOH), Betaine, and Betaine + EtOH groups. Administration of betaine in Betaine + EtOH group significantly increased CAT activity when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). GPx activity increased significantly in Betaine and Betaine + EtOH groups as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Interestingly, GPx and CAT activities insignificantly increased (in order compensatory) in EtOH group to suppress oxidative stress. In contrast, SOD activity decreased insignificantly in EtOH group compared to Betaine + EtOH and control groups (P > 0.05). TBARS concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) significantly increased in ethanol-treated rats as compared to controls, while total homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in betaine-treated rats in comparison with EtOH group. Regarding to oestrous cycles, ethanol-treated animals had irregular estral cycle and persistent oestrous phase compared to controls and betaine-treated rats. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time the antioxidant and methyl donor properties of betaine in the rat ovary. Thus, betaine might be used as a potential therapy in hyperhomocysteinemia and partial infertility mediated by oxidative stress in females.


Ovarian antioxidant enzymes Betaine Ethanol Rat 



This research was financially supported by School of Veterinary Medicine-Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. We are most grateful to Saeedeh Ahmadi for the kind technical assistance; also like to thank M. Shoaei and R. Shirazi (the member and manager of Aryadalman Company, Tehran, Iran) for providing betaine (Betafine®).

Supplementary material

10989_2012_9300_MOESM1_ESM.doc (93 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 93 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masoud Alirezaei
    • 1
  • Parvin Niknam
    • 2
  • Gholamali Jelodar
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary MedicineLorestan UniversityKhorram AbadIran
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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