In this study, we measured students’ perceptions of mathematics classroom learning environment and investigated their associations with students’ achievement. The Mathematics-Related Constructivist-Oriented Classroom Learning Environment Survey (MCOLES) was developed with seven dimensions and 56 items, using theories surrounding classroom learning environment. For a sample of 423 grade 10 students from five schools in India, we validated the MCOLES by exploratory factor analysis and then by confirmatory factor analysis, which suggested the exclusion of 11 items and yielded an 11-factor solution. For achievement on a topic taught, mainly medium correlations emerged with the learning environment factors, suggesting practical implications for classroom teaching. This study is methodologically significant in proposing and validating the new MCOLES for measuring classroom learning environments in secondary-school mathematics.
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Appendix: Listing of items in Mathematics-Related Constructivist-Oriented Learning Environment Survey (MCOLES)
Appendix: Listing of items in Mathematics-Related Constructivist-Oriented Learning Environment Survey (MCOLES)
|Student Cohesiveness and Personal Relevance|
|1.||I make friends with many students in my mathematics class and many of them are already my friends|
|2.||I know other students in my mathematics class and I work well with them|
|3.||Students in my mathematics class like me because I am friendly with them|
|4.||I help other class members who are having trouble with their mathematics work, and they help me too|
|5.||I relate what I learn in my mathematics class to my life outside school and connect it|
|6.||I draw on my past experiences and apply them to the work in my mathematics class|
|7.||What I learn in my mathematics class is relevant to my everyday life in my school and outside|
|8.||My mathematics class is relevant to my life because I get an understanding of life even outside of school|
|9.||My mathematics teacher is interested in my mathematics problems|
|10.||My mathematics teacher goes out of his/her way to help me|
|11.||My mathematics teacher considers my feelings|
|12.||My teacher helps me when I have trouble with my mathematics work|
|13.||My mathematics teacher talks with me about mathematics work|
|14.||My mathematics teacher takes an interest in my progress|
|15.||My mathematics teacher moves about the class to talk with me|
|16.||My mathematics teacher’s questions help me to understand|
|17.||I discuss ideas in my mathematics class|
|18.||I give my opinions during mathematics class discussions|
|19.||My mathematics teacher asks me questions|
|20.||I contribute to mathematics discussions in my class with my ideas and suggestions|
|21.||I ask my mathematics teacher questions|
|22.||I explain my mathematics ideas to my peers|
|23.||Students discuss with me how to go about solving problems|
|24.||I am asked to explain how I solve problems|
|Task orientation by Cooperation|
|25.||I cooperate with other students and learn from them when doing mathematics assignment work in the class|
|26.||I share my mathematics books and resources with other students and cooperate with them when doing mathematics assignments in mathematics class|
|27.||When I work with others in groups in mathematics class, we work as a team to achieve class goals|
|28.||I work on mathematics tasks with other students in my class|
|29.||I know getting a certain amount of mathematics work done is important and how much of mathematics work I have to do|
|30.||I try to understand the mathematics work that I am required to do when completing a mathematics task|
|31.||I know the goals set for my mathematics class|
|32.||I am ready to pay attention to my mathematics teacher from the beginning until the end of the class|
|33.||My mathematics teacher gives me as much attention as to other students in my mathematics class|
|34.||My mathematics teacher helps me as much as he does to others in my mathematics class|
|35.||I have the same amount of say in my mathematics class as other students|
|36.||I am treated the same as other students in my mathematics class|
|37.||I receive the same encouragement from my mathematics teacher as other students do|
|38.||I get the same opportunity to contribute to mathematics class discussions as other students|
|39.||My mathematics work receives as much praise as other students’ work|
|40.||I get the same opportunity to answer mathematics questions as other students|
|41.||I work at the speed which suits my mathematics ability|
|42.||Students who work faster than me can move on to the next mathematics topic|
|43.||I choose mathematics tasks suited to my interest|
|44.||The mathematics tasks that are used in my class are suited to my interest|
|46.||I use different mathematics materials from those used by other students|
|47.||I use different mathematics assessment methods from other students|
|48.||I do mathematics work that is different from other students’ work|
|49.||For improving my mathematics learning I use feedback from assessment tasks and understand their link with classroom activities|
|50.||Mathematics assessment tasks are an important part of my learning as they help me to recognise my weaknesses in mathematics understanding|
|51.||Mathematics assessment tasks help me to understand the topic|
|52.||I find the mathematics assessment tasks meaningful and helpful to monitor my own learning|
|53.||The criteria for mathematics assessment are clear to me as they inform me which activities and tasks are used to assess my performance|
|54.||The requirements for assessment tasks are clear to me and I know what types of information I need for completing such tasks|
|55.||I understand how my teacher judges my work from my teacher’s instructions for doing assessment tasks|
|56.||I know how to complete different assessment tasks successfully|
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Aluri, V.L.N., Fraser, B.J. Students’ perceptions of mathematics classroom learning environments: measurement and associations with achievement. Learning Environ Res 22, 409–426 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-019-09282-1
- Learning environment
- Mathematics education
- Mathematics-Related Constructivist-Oriented Learning Environment Survey (MCOLES)