Measuring sports class learning climates: The development of the Sports Class Environment Scale

  • Trevor Dowdell
  • L. Mich Tomson
  • Michael Davies
Original Paper


The development and validation of a new and unique learning climate instrument, the Sports Class Environment Scale (SCES), was the focus of this study. We began with a consolidation of the dimensions and items of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire–2 and the Classroom Environment Scale. Field-testing of the SCES involved 204 competitive gymnasts from six metropolitan and four regional competitive gymnastics clubs in Queensland, Australia. Exploratory factor analysis provided a revised SCES with five scales labelled Task Involvement & Improvement, Ego Involvement & Mistakes, Coach–Athlete Communication, Effort, Order & Organisation, and Affiliation. Using scales of the revised SCES as dependent variables, multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to compare club types, genders and competitive levels. Effective measurement of sports class learning climates using the SCES could lead to a greater understanding of effective sports classes, and of coach and athlete behaviours in those classes, and provide a first step in monitoring sports class learning climates.


Class climate Learning environment Motivational climate Sports classes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor Dowdell
    • 1
  • L. Mich Tomson
    • 1
  • Michael Davies
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education and Professional StudiesGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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