Distribution of invasive plants in urban environment is strongly spatially structured
- 791 Downloads
Urban environments create a wide range of habitats that harbour a great diversity of plant species, many of which are of alien origin. For future urban planning and management of the green areas within the city, understanding of the spatial distribution of invasive alien species is of great importance.
Our main aim was to assess how availability of different ecosystem types within a city area, as well as several parameters describing urban structure interact in determining the cover and identity of invasive alien species.
We studied the distribution of chosen invasive plant species in a mid-sized city in the Czech Republic, central Europe, on a gradient of equal sized cells from the city centre to its outskirts.
A great amount of variation was explained by spatial predictors but not shared with any measured variables. The species cover of invasive species decreased with increasing proportion of urban greenery and distance from the city centre, but increased with habitat richness; road margins, ruderal sites, and railway sites were richest in invasive species. In contrast, the total number of invasive species in cells significantly decreased with increasing distance from the city centre, but increased with habitat richness.
Our results suggest that different invasive species prefer habitats in the vicinity of the city centre and at its periphery and the spatial structure and habitat quality of the urban landscape needs to be taken into account, in efforts to manage alien plant species invasions in urban environments.
KeywordsAlien Species cover Central Europe Invasive Neophyte Species richness Urban environment
Our special thanks are due to Věra Samková (East Bohemian Museum, Hradec Králové) for her extensive help in the field and for providing us with local floristic literature, Lukáš Sekerka for his patience and permanent support, Martin Hejda, Jan Pergl and Stanislav Mihulka for their critical insights on the first drafts of the manuscript, and to Christina Alba who kindly improved English and also commented on the manuscript. We also thank Amy Hahs, Jill Rapson and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments that helped us to improve the manuscript. JB, KŠ, PP and PŠ were supported by the Project No. 14-36079G (Centre of Excellence PLADIAS from the Czech Science Foundation), PŠ by the project of GAJU 04-142/2010/P, KŠ and PP by long-term research development project RVO 67985939 (The Czech Academy of Sciences), and Praemium Academiae award to PP.
- Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (2004) Archive Colour Orthophoto of the Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
- Aronson MFJ, La Sorte FA, Nilon CH, Katti M, Goddard MA, Lepczyk CA, Warren PS, Williams NSG, Cilliers S, Clarson B, Dobbs C, Dolan R, Hedblom M, Klotz S, Kooijmas JL, Kühn I, MacGregor-Fors I, McDonnell M, Mörtberg U, Pyšek P, Siebert S, Sushinsky J, Werner P, Winter M (2014) A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proc R Soc B 281(1780):20133330CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate—a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Statist Soc Ser B 57:289–300Google Scholar
- Celesti-Grapow L, Blasi C (1998) A comparison of the urban flora of different phytoclimatic regions in Italy. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 7:367–378Google Scholar
- Chytrý M, Pyšek P, Tichý L, Knollová I, Danihelka J (2005) Invasions by alien plants in the Czech Republic: a quantitative assessment across habitats. Preslia 77:339–354Google Scholar
- ESRI (2015) ArcGIS Pro 1.1, Redlands, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
- Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS, Bridgewater P, Cramer VA, Epstein PR, Ewel JJ, Klink CA, Lugo AE, Norton D, Ojima D, Richardson DM, Sanderson EW, Valladares F, Vilà M, Zamora R, Zobel M (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Klotz S (1990) Species/area and species/inhabitants relations in European cities. In: Sukopp H, Hejný S (eds) Urban ecology, plants and plant communities in urban environments. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 99–104Google Scholar
- Kowarik I (1995) On the role of alien species in urban flora and vegetation. In: Pyšek P, Prach K, Rejmánek M, Wade M (eds) Plant invasions: general aspects and special problems. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 85–103Google Scholar
- Kühn I, Brandl R, Klotz S (2004) The flora of German cities is naturally species rich. Evol Ecol Res 6:749–764Google Scholar
- Lambdon PW, Pyšek P, Basnou C, Hejda M, Arianotsou M, Essl F, Jarošík V, Pergl J, Winter M, Anastasiu P, Andriopoulos P, Bazos I, Brundu G, Celesti-Grapow L, Chassot P, Delipetrou P, Josefsson M, Kark S, Klotz S, Kokkoris Y, Kühn I, Marchante H, Perglová I, Pino J, Vilà M, Zikos A, Roy D, Hulme PE (2008) Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical pattern and research needs. Preslia 80:101–149Google Scholar
- Legendre P, Legendre L (2012) Numerical ecology, 3rd, English edn. Elsevier Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Pyšek P (1995) Approaches to studying spontaneous settlement flora and vegetation in Central Europe: a review. In: Sukopp H, Numata M, Huber A (eds) Urban ecology as the basis of urban planning. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 23–39Google Scholar
- Pyšek P, Prach P, Šmilauer P (1995) Relating invasion success to plant traits: an analysis of the Czech alien flora. In: Pyšek P, Prach K, Rejmánek M, Wade M (eds) Plant invasions: general aspects and special problems. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 39–60Google Scholar
- Pyšek P, Sádlo J, Mandák B (2002) Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia 74:97–186Google Scholar
- Pyšek P, Bacher S, Chytrý M, Jarošík V, Wild J, Celesti-Grapow L, Gassó N, Kenis M, Lambdon PW, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Roques A, Sádlo J, Solarz W, Vilà M, Hulme PE (2010) Contrasting patterns in the invasions of European terrestrial and freshwater habitats by alien plants, insects and vertebrates. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 19:317–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pyšek P, Danihelka J, Sádlo J, Chrtek J Jr, Chytrý M, Jarošík V, Kaplan Z, Krahulec F, Moravcová L, Pergl J, Štajerová K, Tichý L (2012) Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns. Preslia 84:155–255Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2008) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Sádlo J, Chytrý M, Pyšek P (2007) Regionals species pools of vascular plants in habitats of the Czech Republic. Preslia 79:303–321Google Scholar
- Skalický V (1988) Regionálně fytogeografické členění [Phytogeographic land classification]. In: Hejný S, Slavík B (eds) Květena České socialistické republiky [Flora of the Czech Socialist Republic]. Academia, Praha, pp 103–121Google Scholar
- Sukopp H (2002) On the early history of urban ekology in Europe. Preslia 74:373–393Google Scholar
- ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (2012) Canoco reference manual and user’s guide: software for ordination (version 5.0). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
- Tolasz R, Míková T, Valeriánová A, Voženílek V (eds) (2007) Atlas podnebí Česka [Climate atlas of Czechia]. ČHMÚ, Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Praha & OlomoucGoogle Scholar
- Urban Atlas (2006) Owner: Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry (DG-ENTR), Directorate-General for Regional policy, custodian: EEA. http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/ds_resolveuid/9df69b925454fd267512ea65898dbbdc