Landscape Ecology

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 429–444 | Cite as

Legacy effects of past land use on current biodiversity in a low-intensity farming landscape in Transylvania (Romania)

  • Patrick D. Culbert
  • Ine Dorresteijn
  • Jacqueline Loos
  • Murray K. Clayton
  • Joern Fischer
  • Tobias Kuemmerle
Research Article



Ecological impacts of past land use can persist for centuries. While present-day land use is relatively easy to quantify, characterizing historical land uses and their legacies on biodiversity remains challenging. Southern Transylvania in Romania is a biodiversity-rich area which has undergone major political and socio-economic changes, from the Austro-Hungarian Empire to two World Wars, communist dictatorship, capitalist democracy, and EU accession—all leading to widespread land-use changes.


We investigated whether present-day community composition of birds, plants, and butterflies was associated with historical land use.


We surveyed birds, plants, and butterflies at 150 sites and classified those sites as forest, arable land, or managed grassland for six epochs using historical maps from the 1870s, 1930s, and 1970s, satellite imagery from 1985 to 2000, and field visits in 2012. Sites were labelled permanent if they had the same land use at all epochs and non-permanent otherwise. We used clustering and PERMANOVA based on community similarity to test for associations between community composition and land-use history.


We found significant differences (p = 0.030) in bird communities between permanent and non-permanent forest sites, and permanent and non-permanent grassland sites (p = 0.051). No significant associations were found among plants or butterflies and land-use history.


Bird communities were associated with historical land use, though plants and butterflies were not. Historical land-use change in our study area was likely not sufficiently intense to cross relevant ecological thresholds that would lead to legacy effects in present-day plant and butterfly communities.


Agricultural intensification Birds Butterflies Farmland abandonment Historical ecology Land-use change Legacy effects Plants 



We thank Anne-Catherine Klein, Cosmin Moga, Elek Telek, Jörg Steiner, Joszef Pal Frink, Kimberley Pope, Laura Sutcliffe, Laurie Jackson, Paul Kirkland, Pavel Dan Turtureanu and Remi Bigonneau for their tremendous efforts in the field. Catalina Munteanu provide helpful translation assistance for the historical maps. JF was funded through a Sofja Kovalevskaja Award by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. PC and TK gratefully acknowledge funding by the European Commission (projects VOLANTE, No. 265104 and HERCULES, No. 603447) and by the Einstein Foundation, Berlin.

Supplementary material

10980_2016_441_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2720 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geography DepartmentHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of SustainabilityLeuphana University LüneburgLüneburgGermany
  3. 3.AgroecologyGeorg August UniversityGöttingenGermany
  4. 4.Department of StatisticsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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