Landscape Ecology

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 989–1001 | Cite as

Associations of Bird Species Richness and Community Composition with Local and Landscape-scale Environmental Factors in Borneo

  • Daniel F. R. Cleary
  • Martin J. Genner
  • Timothy J. B. Boyle
  • Titiek Setyawati
  • Celina D. Angraeti
  • Steph B. J. Menken
Research Article


A comprehensive understanding of variables associated with spatial differences in community composition is essential to explain and predict biodiversity over landscape scales. In this study, spatial patterns of bird diversity in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, were examined and associated with local-scale (habitat structure and heterogeneity) and landscape-scale (logging, slope position and elevation) environmental variables. Within the study area (c. 196 km2) local habitat structure and heterogeneity varied considerably, largely due to logging. In total 9747 individuals of 177 bird species were recorded. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) revealed that the best explanatory models of bird community similarity and species richness included both local- and landscape-scale environmental variables. Important local-scale variables included liana abundance, fern cover, sapling density, tree density, dead wood abundance and tree architecture, while important landscape-scale variables were elevation, logging and slope position. Geographic distance between sampling sites was not significantly associated with spatial variation in either species richness or similarity. These results indicate that deterministic environmental processes, as opposed to dispersal-driven stochastic processes, primarily structure bird assemblages within the spatial scale of this study and confirm that highly variable local habitat measures can be effective means of predicting landscape-scale community patterns.


Akaike's information criterion (AIC) Community similarity Habitat heterogeneity Habitat structure Indonesia Kalimantan Logging Topography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anggraini, K., Kinnaird, M., O′Brien, T. 2000The effects of fruit availability and habitat disturbance on an assemblage of Sumatran hornbillsBird Conservation International10189202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asdak, C., Jarvis, P.G., Van Gardingen, P., Fraser, A. 1998Rainfall interception loss in unlogged and logged forest areas of Central Kalimantan, IndonesiaJournal of Hydrology206237244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, J., Schulze, C.H., Linsenmair, K.E., Fiedler, K. 2002From forest to farmland: diversity of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on BorneoJournal of Tropical Ecology183351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Drapeau, P. 1992Partialing out the spatial component of ecological variationEcology7310451055Google Scholar
  5. Bray, J.R., Curtis, J.T. 1957An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern WisconsinEcological Monographs27325349Google Scholar
  6. Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. 2002Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach2nd edSpringer-Verlag, NYNYGoogle Scholar
  7. Cannon, C.H., Peart, D.R., Leighton, M. 1998Tree species diversity in commercially logged Bornean rainforestScience28113661368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chappell, N.A., Bidin, K., Tych, W. 2001Modelling rainfall and canopy controls on net-precipitation beneath selectively-logged forestPlant Ecology153215229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke, K.R., Gorley, R.N. 2001Primer v5: User Manual/TutorialPrimer-E LtdPlymouthGoogle Scholar
  10. Clergeau, P., Jokimäki, J., Savard, J-P.L. 2001Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes?. Journal of Applied Ecology3811221134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collar, N.J.Andreev, A.V.Chan, S.Crosby, M.J.Subramanya, S.Tobias, J.A. . eds. 2001Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data BookBirdLife InternationalCambridgeUKGoogle Scholar
  12. Condit, R., Ashton, P.S., Baker, P., Bunyavejchewin, S., Gunatilleke, S., Gunatilleke, N., Hubbell, S., Foster, R.B., Itoh, A., LaFrankie, J.V., Lee, H.S., Losos, E., Manokaran, N., Sukumar, R., Yamakura, T. 2000Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree speciesScience28814141418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., McDonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I., Kasischke, E. 2004Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian BorneoScience30310001003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Bini, L.M., Hawkins, B.A. 2003Spatial autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecologyGlobal Ecology and Biogeography125364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drapeau, P., Leduc, A., Giroux, J.F., Savard, J-P. L, Bergeron, Y., Vickery, W.L. 2000Landscape-scale disturbances and changes in bird communities of boreal mixed-wood forestsEcological Monographs70423444Google Scholar
  16. Dufrêne M. 1998. IndVal 2.0. programme freely available at: http://mrw Scholar
  17. Dufrêne, M., Legendre, P. 1997Species assemblages and indicator species: The need for a flexible asymmetrical approachEcological Monographs67345366Google Scholar
  18. Gotelli N.J. and Entsminger G.L. 2001. EcoSim: Null Models Software for Ecology. V. 6.0. Acquired Intelligence Inc Scholar
  19. Harms, K.E., Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P., Foster, R.B. 2001Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plotJournal of Ecology89947959Google Scholar
  20. Herrando, S., Brotons, L. 2002Forest bird diversity in Mediterranean areas affected by wildfires: a multi-scale approachEcography25161172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johns, A.D. 1992Vertebrate responses to selective logging: implications for the design of logging systemsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B335437442Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, D.D.P., Hay, S.I., Rogers, D.J. 1998Contemporary environmental correlates of endemic bird areas derived from meteorological satellite sensorsProceedings of the Royal Society London Series B265951959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu, A.Z., Li, D.Z., Wang, H. 2001Pollination ecology of a pioneer species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in XishuangbannaSouth Yunnan, ChinaActa Botanica Sinica43319322Google Scholar
  24. MacFaden, S.W., Capen, D.E. 2002Avian habitat relationships at multiple scales in a New England forestForest Science48243253Google Scholar
  25. Malcolm, J.R., Ray, J.C. 2000Influence of timber extraction routes on Central African small-mammal communities, forest structureand tree diversityConservation Biology1416231638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A. 1989Generalized Linear Models, 2nd edChapman & HallNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Mueller-Dombois, D., Ellenberg, H. 1974Aims and Methods of Vegetation EcologyJohn Wiley and SonsNew York. USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Pearman, P.B. 2002The scale of community structure: habitat variation and avian guilds in tropical forest understoryEcological Monographs721939Google Scholar
  29. Peres, C.A. 1999Tropical forest disturbance and dynamics in Southeast AsiaTrends in Ecology and Evolution14217218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Potts, M.D., Ashton, P.S., Kaufman, L.S., Plotkin, J.B. 2002Habitat patterns in tropical forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest BorneoEcology8327822797Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, W.D., Brawn, J.D., Robinson, S.K. 2000Forest bird community structure in central Panama: influence of spatial scale and biogeographyEcological Monographs70209235Google Scholar
  32. Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Machtans, C.S., Hannon, S.J. 1997Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responsesEcology7819141932Google Scholar
  33. Schnitzer, S.A., Bongers, F. 2002The ecology of lianas and their role in forestsTrends in Ecology and Evolution17223230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seoane, J., Bustamente, J., Diaz-Delgado, R. 2004Competing roles for landscapevegetation, topography and climate in predictive models of bird distributionEcological Modelling171209222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Svenning, J-C. 1999Microhabitat specialisation in a species-rich palm community in Amazonian EcuadorJournal of Ecology875565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Terborgh, J., Robinson, S.K., Parker, T.A., Munn, C.A., Pierpont, N. 1990Structure and organisation of an Amazonian bird communityEcological Monographs60213238Google Scholar
  37. Thiollay, J.M. 2002Avian diversity and distribution in French Guiana: patterns across a large forest landscapeJournal of Tropical Ecology18471498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., Yli-Halla, M. 2003Dispersal, Environmentand floristic variation of western amazonian forestsScience299241244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Vanclay, J.K., Gillison, A.N., Keenan, R.J. 1997Using plant functional attributes to quantify site productivity and growth patterns in mixed forestsForest Ecology and Management94149163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wardell-Johnson, G., Williams, M. 2000Edges and gaps in mature karri forestsouth-western Australia: logging effects on bird species abundance and diversityForest Ecology and Management131121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams, S.E., Marsh, H., Winter, J. 2002Spatial scalespecies diversity, and habitat structure: small mammals in Australian tropical rain forestEcology8313171329Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel F. R. Cleary
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martin J. Genner
    • 3
  • Timothy J. B. Boyle
    • 4
  • Titiek Setyawati
    • 5
  • Celina D. Angraeti
    • 6
  • Steph B. J. Menken
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.National Museum of Natural History‘Naturalis’LeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of HullUK
  4. 4.United Nations Development Program, GEF UnitJ.B. BoyleNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Institute of Land and Food ResourcesUniversity of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia
  6. 6.Conservation International IndonesiaCelina D. AngraetiJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations