Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 281–295 | Cite as

Spatial and Seasonal Patterns of Cattle Habitat use in a Mountain Wooded Pasture

  • Florian Kohler
  • François Gillet
  • Stéphanie Reust
  • Helene H. Wagner
  • Fawziah Gadallah
  • Jean-Michel Gobat
  • Alexandre Buttler
Research Article

Abstract

Management-oriented models of cattle habitat use often treat grazing pressure as a single variable summarizing all cattle activities. This paper addresses the following questions: How does the spatial pattern of cattle effects vary between cattle activities in a highly heterogeneous landscape? Do these patterns change over the grazing season as forage availability decreases? What are the respective roles of natural and management-introduced structures? We estimated the intensity of herbage removal, dung deposition and trampling after each of three grazing periods on a grid of 25 m ×25 m cells covering an entire paddock in the Swiss Jura Mountains. We found no significant positive correlations between cattle effects. Spatial patterns weakened through the season for grazing and trampling, whereas dunging patterns changed little between grazing periods. Redundancy analysis showed that different cattle effects were correlated with different environmental variables and that the importance of management-introduced variables was highest for herbage removal. Autocorrelograms and partial redundancy analyses using principal coordinates of neighbour matrices suggested that dunging patterns were more coarse-grained than the others. Systematic differences in the spatial and seasonal patterns of cattle effects may result in complex interactions with vegetation involving feedback effects through nutrient shift, with strong implications for ecosystem management. In heterogeneous environments, such as pasture-woodland landscapes, spatially explicit models of vegetation dynamics need to model cattle effects separately.

Keywords

Autocorrelation Dung deposition Herbage removal Jura mountains Principal coordinates of neighbour matrices Redundancy analysis Silvopastoral landscape Switzerland Trampling Variance partitioning 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, D.M., Kothmann, M.M. 1980Relationship of distance traveled with diet and weather for hereford heifersJ. Range Manage.33217220Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, D.W., Gross, J.E., Laca, E.A., Rittenhouse, L.R., Coughenour, M.B., Swift, D.M., Sims, P.L. 1996Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patternsJ. Range Manage.49386400Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, D.W., Kress, D.D., Anderson, D.C., Boss, D.L., Miller, E.T. 2001Relationships between terrain use and performance of beef cows grazing foothill rangelandJ. Animal Sci.7918831891Google Scholar
  4. Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Drapeau, P. 1992Partialling out the spatial components of ecological variationEcology7310451055Google Scholar
  5. Borcard D. and Legendre P. 2001. SpaceMaker Program. Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, URL http://www.fas.umontreal.ca/BIOL/legendre/.
  6. Borcard, D., Legendre, P. 2002All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbour matricesEcol. Model.1535168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Avois-Jacquet, C., Tuomisto, H. 2004Dissecting the spatial structure of ecological data at multiple scalesEcology8518261832Google Scholar
  8. Brind’Amour, A., Boisclair, D., Legendre, P., Borcard, D. 2005Multiscale spatial distribution of a littoral fish community in relation to environmental variablesLimnol. Oceanogr.50465479Google Scholar
  9. Cook, C.W. 1966Factors affecting utilization of mountain slopes by cattleJ. Range Manage.19200204Google Scholar
  10. Costa, G., Mosimann, E., Zagni, C. 1990Effet de la présence nocturne au pâturage sur les performances d’un troupeau laitier et sur ses restitutions à l’alpageFourrages123305311Google Scholar
  11. Coughenour, M.B. 1991Spatial components of plant–herbivore interactions in pastoral, ranching, and native ungulate ecosystemsJ. Range Manage.44530542Google Scholar
  12. Cousins, S.A.O., Lavorel, S., Davies, I. 2003Modelling the effects of landscape pattern and grazing regimes on the persistence of plant species with high conservation value in grasslands in south-eastern SwedenLandscape Ecol.18315332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deckers, J.A.Nachtergaele, F.O.Spaargaren, O.C. eds. 1998World Reference Base for Soil Resources: IntroductionPublishing Company AccoLeuven, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  14. Dungan, J.L., Perry, J.N., Dale, M.R.T., Legendre, P., Citron-Pousty, S., Fortin, M.J., Jakomulska, A., Miriti, M., Rosenberg, M.S. 2002A balanced view of scale in spatial statistical analysisEcography25626640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dutilleul, P. 1993Modifying the t test for assessing the correlation between two spatial processesBiometrics49305314Google Scholar
  16. Etienne, M. 1996Western European Silvopastoral SystemsINRA EditionsParis, FranceGoogle Scholar
  17. Gander, A., Rockmann, A., Strehler, C., Güsewell, S. 2003Habitat use by Scottish Highland cattle in a lakeshore wetlandBull. Geobot. Inst. ETH69313Google Scholar
  18. Gillet, F., Besson, O., Gobat, J.M. 2002PATUMOD: a compartment model of vegetation dynamics in wooded pasturesEcol. Model.187267290Google Scholar
  19. Gillet, F., Gallandat, J.D. 1996Integrated synusial phytosociology: some notes on a new, multiscalar approach to vegetation analysisJ. Veg. Sci.71318Google Scholar
  20. Hahn, B.D., Richardson, F.D., Starfield, A.M. 1999Frame-based modelling as a method of simulating rangeland production systems in the long termAgricult. Syst.622949Google Scholar
  21. Hart, R.H., Bissio, J., Samuel, M.J., Waggoner, J.W. 1993Grazing systems, pasture sizeand cattle grazing behaviordistribution and gainsJ. Range Manage.468187Google Scholar
  22. Havlicek, E., Gobat, J.M. 1996Les apports éoliens dans les sols du Jura: état des connaissances et nouvelles données en pâturages boisésEtude et Gestion des Sols3167178Google Scholar
  23. Hester, A.J., Baillie, G.J. 1998Spatial and temporal patterns of heather use by sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaicsJ. Appl. Ecol.35772784Google Scholar
  24. Jelinski, D.E., Wu, J. 1996The modifiable areal unit problem and implications for landscape ecologyLandscape Ecol.11129140Google Scholar
  25. Jewell P. 2002. Impact of cattle grazing upon vegetation of an Alpine pasture. Ph.D. Thesis. ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland, 304 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Kohler, F., Gillet, F., Gobat, J.-M., Buttler, A. 2004Seasonal vegetation changes in mountain pastures due to simulated effects of cattle activityJ. Veg. Sci.15143150Google Scholar
  27. Legendre, P. 1993Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm?Ecology7416591673Google Scholar
  28. Legendre P. 2001. Program Mod_t_test. Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal.URL http://www.fas.umontreal.ca/BIOL/legendre/.
  29. Legendre, P., Legendre, L. 1998Numerical Ecology, 2nd English editionElsevier Science BVAmsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  30. Marsh, R., Campling, R.C. 1970Fouling of pastures by dungHerbage Abstracts40123130Google Scholar
  31. McGechan, M.B., Topp, C.F.E. 2004Modelling environmental impacts of deposition of excreted nitrogen by grazing dairy cowsAgricult. Ecosyst. Environ.103149164Google Scholar
  32. Miller, R.F., Krueger, W.C. 1976Cattle use on summer foothill rangelands in Northeastern OregonJ. Range. Manage.29367371Google Scholar
  33. Mitlohner, F.M., Morrow, J.L., Dailey, J.W., Wilson, S.C., Galyean, M.L., Miller, M.F., McGlone, J.J. 2001Shade and water misting effects on behaviorphysiology, performanceand carcass traits of heat-stressed feedlot cattleJ. Animal Sci.7923272335Google Scholar
  34. Økland, R.H., Eilertsen, O. 1994Canonical correspondence analysis with variation partitioning: some comments and an applicationJ. Veg. Sci.5117126Google Scholar
  35. Olff, H., Ritchie, M.E. 1998Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversityTrends Ecol. Evol.13261265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Osuji, P.O. 1974The physiology of eating and the energy expenditure of the ruminant at pastureJ. Range Manage.27437443Google Scholar
  37. Owens, M.K., Launchbaugh, K.L., Holloway, J.W. 1991Pasture characteristics affecting spatial-distribution of utilization by cattle in mixed brush communitiesJ. Range Manage.44118123Google Scholar
  38. Perrenoud, A., Känzig-Schoch, U., Schneider, O., Wettstein, O. 2003Exploitation durable des pâturages boisésEditions HauptZürich, SwitzerlandUn exemple appliqué du Jura suisse. Nachhaltige Bewirtschaftung von Wytweiden. Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Schweizer Jura.Google Scholar
  39. Petersen, R.G., Lucas, H.L., Woodhouse, W.W. 1956The distribution of excreta by freely grazing cattle and its effect on pasture fertility. I. Excretal distributionAgron. J.48440444Google Scholar
  40. Peterson, P.R., Gerrish, J.R. 1996Grazing systems and spatial distribution of nutrients in pastures: livestock management considerationsJoost, R.E.Roberts, C.A. eds. Nutrient Cycling in Forage SystemsPotash and Phosphate Institute and the Foundation for Agronomy ResearchManhattan, Kansas, USA203212Google Scholar
  41. Peterson, R.A., Woolfolk, E.J. 1955Behavior of hereford cows and calves on short grass rangeJ. Range Manage.85157Google Scholar
  42. Pinchak, W.E., Smith, M.A., Hart, R.H., Waggoner, J.W. 1991Beef-cattle distribution patterns on foothill rangeJ. Range Manage.44267275Google Scholar
  43. Pratt, R.M., Putman, R.J., Ekins, J.R., Edwards, P.J. 1986Use of habitat by free-ranging cattle and ponies in the New ForestSouthern EnglandJ. Appl. Ecol.23539557Google Scholar
  44. Putman, R.J., Pratt, R.M., Ekins, J.R., Edwards, P.J. 1987Food and feeding-behavior of cattle and ponies in the New ForestHampshireJ. Appl. Ecol.24369380Google Scholar
  45. R Development Core Team. 2004. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaAustria. URL http://www. R-project.org.
  46. Rice, R.W., MacNeil, M.D., Jenkins, T.G., Koong, L.J. 1983Simulation of the herbage/animal interface of grazioso landLauenroth, W.K.Skogerboe, G.V.Flug, M. eds. Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modeling. Developments in Ecological Modelling 5.ElsevierAmsterdam, The Netherlands475488Google Scholar
  47. Roath, L.R., Krueger, W.C. 1982Cattle grazing and behavior on a forested rangeJ. Range Manage.35332338Google Scholar
  48. Roovers, P., Verheyen, K., Hermy, M., Gulink, H. 2004Experimental trampling and vegetation recovery in some forest and heathland communitiesAppl. Veg. Sci.7111118Google Scholar
  49. Schutz, M., Risch, A.C., Leuzinger, E., Krusi, B.O., Achermann, G. 2003Impact of herbivory by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on patterns and processes in subalpine grasslands in the Swiss National ParkForest Ecol. Manage.181177188Google Scholar
  50. Senft, R.L., Coughenour, M.B., Bailey, D.W., Rittenhouse, L.R., Sala, O.E., Swift, D.M. 1987Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchiesBioScience37789797Google Scholar
  51. Senft, R.L., Rittenhouse, L.R., Woodmansee, R.G. 1985Factors influencing patterns of cattle grazing behavior on shortgrass steppeJ. Range Manage.388287Google Scholar
  52. Shiyomi, M., Tsuiki, M. 1999Model for the spatial pattern formed by a small herd in grazing cattleEcol. Model.119231238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tate, K.W., Atwill, E.R., McDougald, N.K., George, M.R. 2003Spatial and temporal patterns of cattle feces deposition on rangelandJ. Range Manage.56432438Google Scholar
  54. ter Braak, C.J.F., Smilauer, P. 2002CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5)Microcomputer PowerIthaca, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  55. Thompson, C.M., McGarigal, K. 2002The influence of research scale on bald eagle habitat selection along the lower Hudson RiverNew York (USA)Landscape Ecol.17569586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Turner, M.G. 1989Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on processAnnu. Rev. Ecol. System.20171197Google Scholar
  57. Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H., O’Neill, R.V. 2001Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and ProcessSpringer-VerlagNew York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  58. Oene, H., Deursen, E.J.M., Berendse, F. 1999Plant–herbivores interaction and its consequences for succession in wetland ecosystems: a modelling approachEcosystems2122138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rees, H., Hutson, G.D. 1983The behavior of free-ranging cattle on an alpine range in AustraliaJ. Range Manage.36740743Google Scholar
  60. Verweij P.A. 1995. Spatial and temporal modelling of vegetation patterns. Burning and grazing in the paramo of Los Nevados National Park, Colombia. Ph.D. Thesis. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation: Enschede, The Netherlands, 234 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Weber, G.E., Jeltsch, F., Rooyen, N., Milton, S.J. 1998Simulated long-term vegetation response to grazing heterogeneity in semi-arid rangelandsJ. Appl. Ecol.35687699Google Scholar
  62. White, S.L., Sheffield, R.E., Washburn, S.P., King, L.D., Green, J.T. 2001Spatial and time distribution of dairy cattle excreta in an intensive pasture systemJ. Environ. Qual.3021802187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiens, J.A. 1989Spatial scaling in ecologyFunct. Ecol.3385397Google Scholar
  64. Wu, J. 2004Effects of changing scale on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relationsLandscape Ecol.19125138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wu, J., David, J.L. 2002A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modelling complex ecological systems: theory and applicationsEcol. Model.153726Google Scholar
  66. Wu, J., Hobbs, R. 2002Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesisLandscape Ecol.17355365Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Kohler
    • 1
    • 2
  • François Gillet
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Stéphanie Reust
    • 1
  • Helene H. Wagner
    • 4
  • Fawziah Gadallah
    • 1
  • Jean-Michel Gobat
    • 1
  • Alexandre Buttler
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant EcologyUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  2. 2.WSLSwiss Federal Research InstituteLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.EPFL, Laboratory of Ecological SystemsSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland
  4. 4.WSLSwiss Federal Research InstituteBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  5. 5.EPFL-ENAC-ISTE-ECOSLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations