Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 205–214 | Cite as

Dyad content is reduced in cardiac myocytes of mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of RyR2

  • Manuela Lavorato
  • Tai-Qin Huang
  • Venkat Ramesh Iyer
  • Stefano Perni
  • Gerhard Meissner
  • Clara Franzini-Armstrong
Original Paper


In cardiac muscle, calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of several membrane proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis (CaV1.2; RyR2, SERCA2, PMCA). Three engineered amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in mice (Ryr2 ADA/ADA ) strongly affect cardiac function, with impaired CaM inhibition of RyR2, reduced SR Ca2+ sequestration, and early cardiac hypertrophy and death (Yamaguchi et al., J Clin Invest 117:1344–1353, 2007). We have examined the ultrastructure and RyR2 immunolocalization in WT and Ryr2 ADA/ADA hearts at ~10 days after birth. The myocytes show only minor evidence of structural damage: some increase in intermyofibrillar space, with occasional areas of irregular SR disposition and an increase in frequency of smaller myofibrils, despite an increase of about 15 % in average myocyte cross sectional area. Z line streaming, a sign of myofibrillar stress, is limited and fairly rare. Immunolabeling with an anti-RyR2 antibody shows that RyR-positive foci located at the level of the Z lines are less frequent in mutant hearts. A dramatic decrease in the frequency and size of dyads, accompanied by a decrease in occupancy of the gap by RyR2, but without obvious alterations in location and general structure is a notable ultrastructural feature. The data suggest that the uneven distribution of dyads or calcium release sites within the cells resulting from an overall reduction in RyR2 content may contribute to the poor cardiac performance and early death of Ryr2 ADA/ADA mice. An unusual fragmentation of mitochondria, perhaps related to imbalances in free cytoplasmic calcium levels, accompanies these changes.


Calmodulin Cardiac ryanodine receptor Dyads Z line streaming Cardiac myocytes 



This study was supported by NIH HL 48093 to CFA and Cardiac Center Grant, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 27115-526326000 to VRI.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuela Lavorato
    • 1
  • Tai-Qin Huang
    • 2
  • Venkat Ramesh Iyer
    • 3
  • Stefano Perni
    • 1
  • Gerhard Meissner
    • 2
  • Clara Franzini-Armstrong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelmann School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochem/BiophysUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Division of CardiologyChildren Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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