Energy, exergy and economic investigation of passive and active inclined solar still: experimental study


The energy efficiency (EnE) and exergy efficiency (ExE) investigations of passive and active inclined solar still (PISS and AISS) are presented in this work. The PISS produced maximum EnE and ExE of 40.21 and 2.88% and the AISS produced maximum EnE and ExE of 48.38 and 6.71%, respectively. The distilled water production, EnE, ExE of the AISS is 47, 16.89, and 57.08% higher than that of the PISS. The daily power generation from the photovoltaic (PV) panel in the PISS is 69 W, and that in the AISS is 52 W. The daily electrical efficiency of the PV panel in the PISS is 9.17%, while that in the AISS is 7.20%. Moreover, the daily average overall EnE, daily average overall ExE, and economic analysis of the PISS and the AISS are calculated. The daily overall EnE and ExE of the system are higher in the case of AISS in comparison to the PISS. The overall daily EnE and ExE of the AISS are 5.24 and 29.63% higher as compared to the PISS. Also, the cost of yield production is noted to be cheaper in AISS (0.018 $/L) when compared to the PISS (0.029 $/L).

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A s :

Area of still (m2)

A c :

Area of STC (m2)


Exergy input of an ISPB still (W m2)


Exergy output of an ISPB still (W m2)

h :

Heat transfer coefficient (W m2 K)

I :

Current (A)

I c (t):

Solar intensity received on STC (W m2)

I s (t):

Solar intensity received on solar still (W m2)


Energy efficiency


Exergy efficiency


Electrical efficiency


Inclined solar still


Passive inclined solar still


Active inclined solar still

L fg :

Latent heat of vaporization (kJ kg1 K)

m ew :

Hourly productivity from the still (kg m2 h)

P :

Power production




Photovoltaic thermal


Spiral tube collector


Phase change material


Flat plate collector

T :

Temperature (°C)

V :

Voltage (V)

η overall , exe :

Overall exergy efficiency (%)

η pv :

PV panel efficiency (%)

Al2O3 :

Aluminium oxide

SnO2 :

Tin oxide


Zinc oxide






Copper oxide


Conventional solar still


Stepped solar still


Double slope solar still

e :


e a.out :

Exergy output of AISS

U :

Overall loss coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Fill factor

V oc :

Open circuit voltage

I sc :

Short circuit current


Capital recovery factor


Annual first cost


Annual maintenance


Sinking fund factor


Annual salvage cost


Annual cost
























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Correspondence to A. Muthu Manokar or Mohsen Sharifpur.

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Thalib, M., Vimala, M., Manokar, A.M. et al. Energy, exergy and economic investigation of passive and active inclined solar still: experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim (2021).

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  • Brackish water
  • Water treatment
  • Energy
  • Exergy
  • Active mode
  • Distilled water
  • Inclined solar still