Numerical analysis for performance enhancement of thermoelectric generator modules by using CNT–water and hybrid Ag/MgO–water nanofluids


The aim of this study is to investigate the performance enhancement of thermoelectric generator module with different nanofluids. CNT–water nanofluid and Ag/MgO–water hybrid nanofluids are used in a 3D channel where thermoelectric generator modules are mounted. 3D coupled multi-physics simulations are performed by using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. It was observed that the power output of the module enhances with the inclusion of nanoparticles. Configuration with hybrid nanofluid produces the highest output power. At Reynolds number of 500, increasing the solid volume faction from 0.005 to 0.2, the output power of the thermoelectric generator rises by about 5.84% and 9.30% for CNT–water and hybrid nanofluid. However, at Reynolds number of 1500, using CNT–water nanofluid becomes effective and the amount of increment will be 6.6%. The efficiencies of the module rise with Reynolds number and solid particle volume fraction, while the values are low.

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\(C_{\text{P}}\) :

Specific heat capacity

E :

Electric field

h :


J :

Current density

k :

Thermal conductivity

l :


N :

Number of pairs

P :


q :

Heat flux

Q :

Heat transfer rate

R :



Reynolds number

u, v :


V :


w :


ZT :

Figure of merit

α :

Seebeck coefficient

ρ :


σ :

Electrical conductivity

\(\mu_{\text{f}}\) :

Dynamic viscosity

\(\emptyset\) :

Solid volume fraction

η :









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Correspondence to Fatih Selimefendigil.

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Selimefendigil, F., Okulu, D. & Mamur, H. Numerical analysis for performance enhancement of thermoelectric generator modules by using CNT–water and hybrid Ag/MgO–water nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim 143, 1611–1621 (2021).

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  • TEG
  • Hybrid nanofluid
  • Coupled simulations
  • CNT–water nanofluid