Thermodynamic potential of a high-concentration hybrid photovoltaic/thermal plant for co-production of steam and electricity

Abstract

A thermodynamic model was developed to assess the energetic performance of a dual receiver concentrated photovoltaic/thermal plant for the co-production of steam, electricity and hot water/air. The system utilizes a dual receiver including a steam generator based on a solar receiver and a concentrated PV/thermal receiver. The system is regulated so that a fraction (φ) of the thermal energy absorbed by the solar field is partitioned for the steam generator, while the rest is dedicated to the CPV/T unit. The results showed that the thermal performance of the system strongly depends on the φ value such that the system can simultaneously produce electricity and steam, while warm air and water can also be produced by cooling the CPV/T unit. Also, the thermal performance of the coolant is a key element to the system, which highlights the potential of nano-suspensions as a coolant in the system. Likewise, the assessment of the process plant was performed at field area of 2500–10,000 m2, the solar concentration ratio of 50–200 and the CPV/T coolant’s outlet temperature of 323–353 K. It was found that the highest values of thermal losses can be ~ 2% of the total thermal input of the plant. Also, a trade-off trend was identified between the φ value, steam and electricity production. It was also found that at a solar concentration ratio of 2000, the system is competitive to produce steam to be fed into a multi-flash desalination system. The energetic performance of the system revealed that at φ = 0.75, about 48% of the energy is partitioned for the hot water and hot air production for the agricultural application, while 24% is used for the electricity and 26% is used for the steam production.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    Acar MS, Arslan O. Energy and exergy analysis of solar energy-integrated, geothermal energy-powered organic rankine cycle. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137(2):659–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Khodabandeh E, Safaei MR, Akbari S, Akbari OA, Alrashed AAAA. Application of nanofluid to improve the thermal performance of horizontal spiral coil utilized in solar ponds: geometric study. Renew Energy. 2018;122:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.023.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Rajendran DR, Sundaram EG, Jawahar P, Sivakumar V, Mahian O, Bellos E. Review on influencing parameters in the performance of concentrated solar power collector based on materials, heat transfer fluids and design. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;140:33–51.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Olia H, Torabi M, Bahiraei M, Ahmadi MH, Goodarzi M, Safaei MR. Application of nanofluids in thermal performance enhancement of parabolic trough solar collector: state-of-the-art. Appl Sci. 2019;9(3):463.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Vivar M, Clarke M, Pye J, Everett V. A review of standards for hybrid CPV-thermal systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16(1):443–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Philipps SP, Bett AW, Horowitz K, Kurtz S. Current status of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology. Golden: National Renewable Energy Lab.(NREL); 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chaabane M, Charfi W, Mhiri H, Bournot P. Performance evaluation of concentrating solar photovoltaic and photovoltaic/thermal systems. Sol Energy. 2013;98:315–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Chandrasekar M, Rajkumar S, Valavan D. A review on the thermal regulation techniques for non integrated flat PV modules mounted on building top. Energy Build. 2015;86:692–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ahmed M, Radwan A. Performance evaluation of new modified low-concentrator polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic/thermal systems. Energy Convers Manage. 2017;149:593–607.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Chow TT, Tiwari GN, Menezo C. Hybrid solar: a review on photovoltaic and thermal power integration. Int J Photoenergy. 2012;2012:1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hasan A, Sarwar J, Shah AH. Concentrated photovoltaic: a review of thermal aspects, challenges and opportunities. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;94:835–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Du B, Hu E, Kolhe M. Performance analysis of water cooled concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16(9):6732–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Segal A, Epstein M, Yogev A. Hybrid concentrated photovoltaic and thermal power conversion at different spectral bands. Sol Energy. 2004;76(5):591–601.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Nižetić S, Marinić-Kragić I, Grubišić-Čabo F, Papadopoulos AM, Xie G. Analysis of novel passive cooling strategies for free-standing silicon photovoltaic panels. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;141:163–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Safaei MR, Goshayeshi HR, Chaer I. Solar still efficiency enhancement by using graphene oxide/paraffin nano-pcm. Energies. 2019;12(10):2002.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Maithani R, Kumar A, Zadeh PG, Safaei MR, Gholamalizadeh E. Empirical correlations development for heat transfer and friction factor of a solar rectangular air passage with spherical-shaped turbulence promoters. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2020;139(2):1195–212.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Goshayeshi HR, Safaei MR. Effect of absorber plate surface shape and glass cover inclination angle on the performance of a passive solar still. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow. 2019;30:3183–98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sellami R, Amirat M, Mahrane A, Slimani ME-A, Arbane A, Chekrouni R. Experimental and numerical study of a PV/Thermal collector equipped with a PV-assisted air circulation system: configuration suitable for building integration. Energy Build. 2019;190:216–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.03.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bigorajski J, Chwieduk D. Analysis of a micro photovoltaic/thermal—PV/T system operation in moderate climate. Renew Energy. 2019;137:127–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Wang G, Wang F, Shen F, Chen Z, Hu P. Novel design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar concentration PV and thermal combined system based on compact linear Fresnel reflector. Energy. 2019;180:133–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.082.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Omer KA, Zala AM. Experimental investigation of PV/thermal collector with theoretical analysis. Renew Energy Focus. 2018;27:67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ref.2018.09.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gagliano A, Tina GM, Nocera F, Grasso AD, Aneli S. Description and performance analysis of a flexible photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. Renew Energy. 2019;137:144–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.04.057.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Yuan W, Ji J, Li Z, Zhou F, Ren X, Zhao X, et al. Comparison study of the performance of two kinds of photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) systems and a PV module at high ambient temperature. Energy. 2018;148:1153–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rahmatmand A, Harrison SJ, Oosthuizen PH. Evaluation of removing snow and ice from photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) panels by circulating hot water. Sol Energy. 2019;179:226–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.12.053.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Wang Z, Wei J, Zhang G, Xie H, Khalid M. Design and performance study on a large-scale hybrid CPV/T system based on unsteady-state thermal model. Sol Energy. 2019;177:427–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.11.043.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yazdanifard F, Ebrahimnia-Bajestan E, Ameri M. Performance of a parabolic trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system: effects of flow regime, design parameters, and using nanofluids. Energy Convers Manag. 2017;148:1265–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.06.075.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bellos E, Tzivanidis C. Multi-objective optimization of a solar assisted heat pump-driven by hybrid PV. Appl Therm Eng. 2019;149:528–35.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sajid MU, Ali HM. Recent advances in application of nanofluids in heat transfer devices: a critical review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2019;103:556–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Soudagar MEM, Kalam MA, Sajid MU, Afzal A, Banapurmath NR, Akram N, et al. Thermal analyses of minichannels and use of mathematical and numerical models. Numer Heat Transf Part A: Appl. 2020;77(5):497–537.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Sajid MU, Ali HM, Sufyan A, Rashid D, Zahid SU, Rehman WU. Experimental investigation of TiO 2–water nanofluid flow and heat transfer inside wavy mini-channel heat sinks. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137(4):1279–94.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wahab A, Hassan A, Qasim MA, Ali HM, Babar H, Sajid MU. Solar energy systems–potential of nanofluids. J Mol Liq. 2019:111049.

  32. 32.

    Sajid MU, Ali HM. Thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluids: a critical review. Int J Heat Mass Transfer. 2018;126:211–34.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Babar H, Sajid MU, Ali HM. Viscosity of hybrid nanofluids: a critical review. Therm Sci. 2019;23(3 Part B):1713–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    van Helden WGJ, van Zolingen RJC, Zondag HA. PV thermal systems: pV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat. Prog Photovoltaics Res Appl. 2004;12(6):415–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Haddad S, Touafek K, Tabet I, Amirat Y. Investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic thermal collector (CPVT) system. New York: IEEE; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mittelman G, Kribus A, Dayan A. Solar cooling with concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) systems. Energy Convers Manage. 2007;48(9):2481–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Hachicha AA, Tawalbeh M. Design of a new concentrated photovoltaic system under UAE conditions. New York: AIP Publishing; 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    El-Ghonemy AMK. Performance test of a sea water multi-stage flash distillation plant: case study. Alex Eng J. 2018;57(4):2401–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Kress N. Marine impacts of seawater desalination: science, management, and policy. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2019.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate the Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University under project number (No. RGP-2019-17).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MMS and MA took part in conceptualization; MMS, IT and TAA used the methodology; MMS and MA handled the software; MMS and MG wrote and prepared the original draft; IT, TAA, MG and MA wrote, reviewed and edited the manuscript; and MA supervised the study.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marjan Goodarzi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sarafraz, M.M., Goodarzi, M., Tlili, I. et al. Thermodynamic potential of a high-concentration hybrid photovoltaic/thermal plant for co-production of steam and electricity. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09914-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Concentrated photovoltaic
  • Nano-suspension, hybrid thermal systems, electricity production
  • Solar steam production
  • Dual hybrid receiver