A lot of studies focus on IAQ in classrooms and energy retrofit of schools in order to increase the pupils’ performance and reduce energy consumption. However, there are limited number of studies that compare the calculated (as part of energy audits) and actual energy savings, discussing such a difference in order to give the recommendation for the future renovation projects. Long-term field data were collected over eight heating seasons from four schools organized into two groups characterized by different range of modernization activities. The group A includes two schools where besides the thermal modernization of building envelopes, the central heating installation was modernized and hydraulic balanced. The group B also comprises two schools where only the thermal retrofit of building envelopes took place, but the heating installation was not modernized, nor hydraulic balanced. The calculated level of energy saving was not covered in 18.1% and 20.3% in the case of schools from group A and in 47.2% and 41.1% in the case of schools from group B, respectively. The results may be of interest for the investors, engineers and policy makers who intend to minimize the difference between the planned and real energy savings as well as the payback time of modernization activities.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Perez-Lombard L, Ortiz J, Pout C. A review on buildings energy consumption information. Energy Build. 2008;40:394–8.
Wang JC. A study on the energy performance of school buildings in Taiwan. Energy Build. 2016;133:810–22.
de Dear R, Kim J, Candido C, Deuble M. Adaptive thermal comfort in Australian school classrooms. Build Res Inf. 2015;43:383–98.
Haddad S, Osmond P, King S. Revisiting thermal comfort models in Iranian classrooms during the warm season. Build Res Inf. 2017;45:457–73.
Wargocki P, Wyon DP. The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children. HVAC&R. 2007;13:193–220.
Wargocki P, Wyon DP. Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective. Build Environ. 2013;59:581–9.
Clements-Croome DJ, Awbi HB, Bako-Biro Z, Kochhar N, Williams M. Ventilation rates in schools. Build Environ. 2008;43:362–7.
Haverinen-Shaughnessy U, Moschandreas DJ, Shaughnessy RJ. Association between substandard classroom ventilation rates and students’ academic achievement. Indoor Air. 2011;21:121–31.
Gao J, Wargocki P, Wang Y. Ventilation system type, classroom environmental quality and pupils’ perceptions and symptoms. Build Environ. 2014;75:46–57.
Toftum J, Kjeldsen BU, Wargocki P, Menå HR, Hansen EMN, Clausen G. Association between classroom ventilation mode and learning outcome in Danish schools. Build Environ. 2015;92:494–503.
Pivac N, Nižetić S, Zanki V. Occupant behavior and thermal comfort field analysis in typical educational research institution: a case study. Thermal Sci. 2018;22:S785–95.
Pereira LD, Raimondo D, Corgnati SP, da Silva MG. Energy consumption in schools—a review paper. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2014;40:911–22.
Raatikainen M, Skön JP, Leiviskä K, Kolehmainen M. Intelligent analysis of energy consumption in school buildings. Appl Energy. 2016;165:416–29.
de Santoli L, Fraticelli F, Fornari F, Calice C. Energy performance assessment and a retrofit strategies in public school buildings in Rome. Energy Build. 2014;68:196–202.
Salvalai G, Malighetti LE, Luchini L, Girola S. Analysis of different energy conservation strategies on existing school buildings in a Pre-Alpine Region. Energy Build. 2017;145:92–106.
Gaitani N, Lehmann C, Santamouris M, Mihalakakou G, Patargias P. Using principal component and cluster analysis in the heating evaluation of the school building sector. Appl Energy. 2010;87:2079–86.
Petcharat S, Chungpaibulpatana S, Rakkwamsuk P. Assessment of potential energy saving using cluster analysis: a case study of lighting systems in buildings. Energy Build. 2012;52:145–52.
Heidarinejad M, Dahlhausen M, McMahon S, Pyke C, Srebric J. Cluster analysis of simulated energy use for LEED certified U.S. office buildings. Energy Build. 2014;85:86–97.
Tahsildoost M, Zomorodian ZS. Energy retrofit techniques: an experimental study of two typical school buildings in Tehran. Energy Build. 2015;104:65–72.
Zinzi M, Agnoli S, Battistini G, Bernabini G. Deep energy retrofit of the T. M. Plauto School in Italy—a five years experience. Energy Build. 2016;126:239–51.
Fennell P, Ruyssevelt P, Smith AZP. Financial viability of school retrofit projects for clients and ESCOs. Build Res Inf. 2016;44:889–906.
Nižetić S, Papadopoulos AM. Concept of building evaluation methodology for gap estimation between designed and achieved energy savings. Procedia Environ Sci. 2017;38:538–45.
Krawczyk DA. Theoretical and real effect of the school’s thermal modernization—a case study. Energy Build. 2014;81:30–7.
Johnston D, Miles-Shenton D, Farmer D. Quantifying the domestic building fabric ‘performance gap’. Build Serv Eng Res Technol. 2015;36:614–27.
Loucari C, Taylor J, Raslan R, Oikonomou E, Mavrogianni A. Retrofit solutions for solid wall dwellings in England: the impact of uncertainty upon the energy performance gap. Build Serv Eng Res Technol. 2016;37:614–34.
Imam S, Coley DA, Walker I. The building performance gap: are modellers literate? Build Serv Eng Res Technol. 2017;38:351–75.
EN ISO 6946: 2017 Building components and building elements—thermal resistance and thermal transmittance—calculation method.
EN 12831-1: 2017 Energy performance of buildings. Method for calculation of the design heat load. Space heating load.
EN ISO 13790: 2008 Energy performance of buildings—calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling.
Regulation of Minister of Infrastructure and Development of 27th February, 2015 on the methodology for determining the energy performance of a building or part of a building, and energy performance certificates. (in polish).
This study was supported by research Project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Cholewa, T., Życzyńska, A. Experimental evaluation of calculated energy savings in schools. J Therm Anal Calorim 141, 213–220 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09230-4
- Building energy retrofit
- Energy audit
- Energy savings
- Energy efficiency