Ambient air temperature and degree-day data analysis of the period 2006–2017 for Cyprus


Heating degree days (HDDs) and cooling degree days (CDDs) are widespread climatic indicators that depict the extremity and duration of ambient air temperature values. Over the years, they have been proven to be a useful tool for a reasonably accurate estimation of space heating and cooling requirements, as well as for the buildings’ energy performance rating and their compliance with legislative requirements. Reliable degree-days (DDs) data are a prerequisite for using the degree-day methods, so is determining the DDs values on a local and regional level, with respect to climate differentiations. The aim of this study is the calculation of HDDs and CDDs for Cyprus at various base temperatures, as such data cannot be found for Cyprus in the literature. The temperature data used were provided by the Cyprus Department of Meteorology, and these are the average daily dry-bulb ambient air temperature values as well as the daily maximum and minimum air temperature values for the period 2006–2017. Data were recorded at five meteorological stations at Paphos, Larnaca, Athalassa, Limassol and Prodromos. Monthly and annually HDDs and CDDs were calculated, for 11 base temperatures, as well as monthly and annually average temperatures for the period 2006–2017, by utilizing the DDs calculation technique of average daily temperature as proposed by ASHRAE. Additionally, an analysis of the variability and the trends of the HDDs and CDDs at the five meteorological stations during the 12-year period were performed. Finally, conclusions were drawn concerning the development of climate over the last 12 years in Cyprus.

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Fig. 4


\(\theta_{\text{bal}}\) :

Balance point temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{i}}\) :

Indoor design air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o}}\) :

Outdoor air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{av,j}}\) :

Daily average air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o,max}}\) :

Daily maximum outdoor air temperature, °C

\(\theta_{\text{o,min}}\) :

Daily minimum outdoor air temperature, °C

\(H\) :

The total heat-loss coefficient of a building, WK−1

\(\dot{q}_{\text{gain}}\) :

Heat gains from occupants, lights, equipment and sun, W


American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers

\({\text{DDs}}\) :

Degree days, °C-day

\({\text{CDD}}_{\text{mon}}\) :

Monthly cooling degree days, °C-day

\({\text{HDD}}_{\text{mon}}\) :

Monthly heating degree days, °C-day


Heating, ventilation and air conditioning


Nearly zero energy buildings


United Kingdom Met Office


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Papakostas, K.T., Pavlou, S. & Papadopoulos, A.M. Ambient air temperature and degree-day data analysis of the period 2006–2017 for Cyprus. J Therm Anal Calorim 141, 435–445 (2020).

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  • Heating degree days
  • Cooling degree days
  • Steady-state energy methods
  • Energy demands in buildings
  • Temperature data
  • Cyprus