Heat transfer enhancement of a microchannel heat sink with the combination of impinging jets, dimples, and side outlets

Abstract

With the rapid increasing heat fluxes released from micro electronic devices, thermal management of electric components faces huge challenge. High working temperature generated by the chip will directly affect its performance. It is essential to develop advanced model to enhance heat transfer. In this study, a new microchannel heat sinks with impinging jets and dimples (MHSIJD) model with side outlets was proposed. Computational fluid dynamics simulation methodology with RNG kε turbulence model was used to investigate the performance of MHSIJD with side outlets. Valuation indices including thermal capability, pump consumption and overall performance were analyzed. Three models were compared with basic model (MHSIJD without side outlets): the cross section of the side outlet was set as 0.2 × 0.2 mm (Case 1), 0.4 × 0.4 mm (Case 2), and 0.6 × 0.6 mm (Case 3). The results showed that: (1) the MHSIJD with side outlets performs better heat transfer characteristic due to the alleviation of drift phenomenon. The heat transfer capacity can be increased by up to 17.51%; (2) the MHSIJD with side outlets exhibits a lower pressure drop, which can be reduced up to 22.39%; and (3) the overall performance of MHSIJD with side outlets is better due to its higher cooling efficiency and lower pump consumption.

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Abbreviations

C :

Empirical constants 1.42

C :

Empirical constants 1.68

C μ :

Empirical constants 0.085

C p :

Isobaric specific heat (J K−1 kg−1)

f :

Acceleration of gravity (m s−2)

G k :

Turbulent kinetic energy caused by the average velocity gradient

H :

Heat sink height (mm)

H 1 :

Jet height (mm)

H 2 :

Channel height (mm)

H 3 :

Height of side outlet in cross section (mm)

h :

Convective heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)

k :

Turbulent kinetic energy

k f :

Thermal conductivity of the fluid (W m−1 K−1)

L :

Heat sink length (mm)

L 1 :

Length of jet in cross section (mm)

L 2 :

Spacing between jets (mm)

\(\overline{Nu}\) :

Nusselt number (−)

P :

Total pressure (Pa)

\(Pr_{\text{T}}\) :

Turbulent Prandtl number

\(\hat{q}\) :

Heat flux (W m−2)

R :

Radius of dimple (mm)

Re :

Reynolds number (−)

S :

Deformation rate tensor

t :

Time—for unsteady items (s)

T :

Temperature (K)

u :

Velocity (m s−1)

W :

Heat sink width (mm)

W 1 :

Channel width (mm)

x, y, z :

Cartesian coordinates (−)

α k :

Inverse effective Prandtl numbers for k

α ε :

Inverse effective Prandtl numbers for ε

β :

Volume coefficient of expansion (1 K−1)

δ :

Kronecker delta

ε :

Turbulent dissipation rate

μ :

Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

μ t :

Turbulent viscosity

τ :

Thear stress caused by viscosity (N m−2)

ρ :

Density (kg m−3)

ΔP :

Pressure drop (Pa)

f:

Fluid

in:

Impinging jet inlet

out:

Channel outlet

i, j :

Any direction of x, y and z

w :

Cooled surface

\(\bar{a}\) :

Time average of a

T :

Temperature

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Acknowledgements

This study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51778511), the Hubei Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2018CFA029), and the Key Project of ESI Discipline Development of Wuhan University of Technology (WUT Grant No. 2017001).

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Correspondence to Tingzhen Ming or Lei Miao.

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Gan, T., Ming, T., Fang, W. et al. Heat transfer enhancement of a microchannel heat sink with the combination of impinging jets, dimples, and side outlets. J Therm Anal Calorim 141, 45–56 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08754-z

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Keywords

  • Microchannel heat sink
  • Heat transfer enhancement
  • Side outlet
  • Impinging jet
  • Dimple