Heat transfer performance of a porous copper micro-channel heat sink


A novel porous copper micro-channel heat sink based on the high thermal conductivity and structural stability of porous copper micro-channel material is proposed in this study. A circular cross-sectional and a multi-layer staggered arrangement are the main characteristics of the micro-channel heat sink. Additionally, a heat dissipation model is produced for porous copper micro-channel heat sink by analyzing the heat transfer process. Further, the theoretical heat transfer coefficient is calculated using MATLAB, and the experimental heat transfer coefficient is determined based on an experimental platform. The heat dissipation model is verified by comparing the theoretical and experimental heat transfer coefficients. The relation between the porous copper micro-channel heat sink parameters and the heat transfer coefficient that is obtained based on the heat dissipation model of the porous copper micro-channel heat sink is analyzed. The results exhibit that variations in pore diameter, porosity, porous copper length, porous copper width, porous copper height, and volume flow significantly affect the heat transfer performance.

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A :

Contact area between the copper panel and the bottom surface of porous copper (m2)

c a :

Surface density coefficient of porous copper

c b :

Heat exchange efficiency

c H :

Bending coefficient of corrugated wall

c p :

Fluid heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)

d :

Pore diameter (m)

G :

Mass flow rate (kg m−2 s−1)

H :

Porous copper height (m)

h :

Heat transfer coefficient of porous copper micro-channel heat sink (W m−2 K−1)

h 0 :

Heat transfer coefficient of corrugated wall and coolant in x axis section (W m−2 K−1)

I :

Current (A)

k :

Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)

L :

Porous copper length (m)

Nu :

Nusselt number

P :

Fluid pressure (Pa)

Q :

Heat (W)

Q 1 :

Heat of ceramic heating plate (W)

Q 2 :

Absorbed heat of coolant (W)

q 0 :

Heat flux (W m−2)

S :

Distance between the surface of micro-channel and the location of thermocouple (m)

T :

Temperature (K)

T w :

Temperature of thermocouple point (K)

t :

Thickness of hole wall (m)

U :

Voltage (V)

V l :

Volume flow (m3 s−1)

v 0 :

Flow velocity (m s−1)

W :

Porous copper width (m)



ε :

Porosity (%)

ε Q :

Uncertainty of heat (%)

ρ f :

Fluid density (kg m−3)

μ f :

Fluid kinetic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

f :


s :







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This work is a part of the author’s post-doctor study in Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

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Correspondence to Tengwei Qiu.

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Qiu, T., Wen, D., Hong, W. et al. Heat transfer performance of a porous copper micro-channel heat sink. J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1453–1462 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08547-4

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  • Porous copper micro-channel
  • Heat sink
  • Heat dissipation model
  • Heat transfer performance