Is Thermogravimetry an efficient alternative to gas chromatography in degree of biodiesel conversion?

  • Caroline Gaglieri
  • Rafael T. Alarcon
  • Aniele de Moura
  • Roni A. Mendes
  • Flávio J. Caires
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

This work aims to determine if thermogravimetry could be used to determine the degree of conversion of soybean oil to biodiesel without knowing the amount of ester in the sample, comparing the results with the values obtained by the standard method, gas chromatography. The syntheses were made using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and the measures were made in triplicate on both pieces of equipment. The average values (%) obtained were 74.59 ± 0.58, 66.5 ± 1.62, 13.54 ± 0.32 by thermogravimetry and 74.09 ± 0.46, 62.08 ± 2.19, 17.07 ± 0.31 by gas chromatography. These data were statistically compared using F-test, and the result indicated that the thermogravimetry could be used as analytical technique to determine the degree of conversion of biodiesel, with the same reliability as gas chromatography. The thermogravimetry shows more advantages than gas chromatography, because it does not require organic solvent, following the Green Chemistry Principles, and it is already used to determine other thermal properties of biodiesel.

Keywords

Biodiesel Degree of conversion Thermogravimetry Gas Chromatography Green Chemistry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank CAPES (Proc. 024/2012 Pro-equipment), CNPq (Proc. No. 421469/2016-1), POSMAT/UNESP and FAPESP (Proc. No. 2017/14936-9 and No. 2017/08820-8) for financial support and the Ph.D. Manoel Lima de Menezes for help.

References

  1. 1.
    Knothe G, Van Gerpen J, Krahl J, Ramos LP. Biodiesel manual. São Paulo: Edgard Blücher; 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baird C, Cann M. Environmental chemistry. 4th ed. New York: W. F. Freeman and Company; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    OECD/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. OECD-FAO Agricultural outlook 2015, OECD publishing; 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. NBR 15764: Biodiesel—Determinação do teor total de ésteres por cromatografia gasosa; 2015.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DIN EN14103 Fat and oil derivatives- Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)—Determination of ester and linolenic acid methyl esters content. Brussels: European Commitee for Standartization, Management Centre; 2011.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henderson RK, Jímenez-González C, Constable DJC, Alston SR, Inglis GGA, Fisher G, Sherwood J, Binks SP, Curzons AD. Expanding GSK’s solvent selection guide—embedding sustainability into solvent selection starting at medicinal chemistry. Green Chem. 2011;13:854–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alfonsi K, Colberg J, Dunn PT, Fevig T, Jennings S, Johnson TA, Kleine HP, Knight C, Nagy MA, Perry DA, Stefaniak M. Green chemistry tools to influence a medicinal chemistry and research chemistry based organization. Green Chem. 2008;10:31–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jain S, Sharma MP. Application of Thermogravimetric analysis for thermal stability of Jatropha Curcas biodiesel. Fuel. 2012;93:252–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chien YC, Lu M, Chai M, Boreo FJ. Characterization of biodiesel and biodiesel particulate matter by TG, TG–MS and FTIR. Energy Fuels. 2009;23:202–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dantas MB, Albuquerque AR, Barros AK, Rodrigues-Filho MG, Antoniosi-Filho NR, Sinfrônio FSM, Rosenhaim R, Soledade LEB, Santos IMG, Souza AG. Evaluation of the oxidative stability of corn biodiesel. Fuel. 2011;90:773–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Santos AGD, Souza LD, Caldeira VPS, Farias MF, Fernandes VJ Jr, Araújo AS. Kinetic study and thermoxidative degradation of palm oil biodiesel. Thermochim Acta. 2014;592:18–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conceição MM, Fernandes VJ Jr, Araújo AS, Farias MF, Santos IMG, Souza AG. Thermal and oxidative degradation of castor oil biodiesel. Energy Fuels. 2007;21:1522–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao H, Cao Y, Orndorff W, Cheng YH, Pan WP. Thermal behaviors of soy biodiesel. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;109:1145–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jain S, Sharma MP. Thermal stability of biodiesel and its blends: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15:438–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santos NA, Tavares MLA, Rosenhaim R, Fernandes Silva FC, Jr VJ, Santos IMG, Souza AG. Thermogravimetric and calorimetric evaluation of babassu biodiesel obtained by the methanol route. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;87:649–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lima JRO, da Silva RB, de Moura EM, de Moura CVR. Biodiesel of tucum oil, synthesized by methanolic and ethanolic routes. Fuel. 2008;87:1718–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chand P, Reddy CV, Verkade JG, Wang T, Grewell D. Termogravimetric quantification of biodiesel produced via alkali catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil. Energy Fuels. 2009;23:989–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Souza FP, Luciano MA, Pasa VMD. Termogravimetry and viscometry for assessing the ester content (FAME and FAEE). Fuel Process Technol. 2013;109:133–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gaglieri C, Caires FJ, da Silva DJ, Bertholdo R, Mendes RA. Synthesis, thermal behaviour and catalytic study of Ni-chitosan in transesterification reaction using soybean oil. Braz J Therm Anal. 2017;6:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hartman L, Lago RCA. Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Lab Pract. 1973;22:475–6.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Menezes ML, Lopes LFS, Passaretti Filho J. Síntese de biodiesel empregando óleo de abacate. Rev Anal. 2010;44:68–78.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller JN, Miller JC. Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited; 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Gaglieri
    • 1
  • Rafael T. Alarcon
    • 1
  • Aniele de Moura
    • 2
  • Roni A. Mendes
    • 3
  • Flávio J. Caires
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemistry Department, School of SciencesSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BauruBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistrySão Paulo State University (UNESP)AraraquaraBrazil
  3. 3.Science and Technology InstituteUNIFAL-MGPoços de CaldasBrazil

Personalised recommendations