The effect of using water/CuO nanofluid and L-shaped porous ribs on the performance evaluation criterion of microchannels

  • Davood Toghraie
  • Mohammad Mahmoudi
  • Omid Ali Akbari
  • Farzad Pourfattah
  • Mousa Heydari


The main purpose of this study is numerically investigating the flow and heat transfer of nanofluid flow inside a microchannel with L-shaped porous ribs as well as studying the effect of porous media properties on the performance evaluation criterion (PEC) of the fluid. In the present paper, in addition to the pure water fluid, the effect of using water/CuO nanofluid on the PEC of microchannel was investigated. The flow was simulated in four Reynolds numbers and two different volume fractions of nanoparticles in laminar flow regime. The investigated parameters are the thermal conductivity and the porosity rate of porous medium. The results indicate that with the existence of porous ribs, the nanofluid does not have a significant effect on heat transfer increase. By using porous ribs in flow with Reynolds number of 1200, the heat transfer rate increases up to 42% and in flow with Reynolds number of 100, this rate increases by 25%.


Nanofluid Microchannel Porous ribs Performance evaluation criterion (PEC) 

List of symbols


Heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1


Hydraulic diameter (m)


Friction factor


Convective heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Nusselt number

\(q^{\prime \prime }\)

Thermal heat flux (W m−2)


Reynolds number


Performance evaluation criterion


Temperature (K)


Pumping power (W)


Pressure (Pa)


Velocity component along the x (m s−1)


Velocity component along the y (m s−1)


Velocity component along the z (m s−1)

Greek symbols


Density (kg m−3)


Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)


Porosity coefficient


Nanoparticles volume fraction

Super- and subscripts






Base fluid (pure water)




Solid nanoparticles


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringMalek-Ashtar University of TechnologyShahin-shahrIran

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