Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 132, Issue 2, pp 919–926 | Cite as

Synergistic flame-retardant effects of aluminum phosphate and Trimer in ethylene–vinyl acetate composites

  • Guang Yang
  • Weihong Wu
  • Huanxin Dong
  • Yonghui Wang
  • Hongqiang Qu
  • Jianzhong Xu


A series of flame-retardant ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA) composites with different contents of aluminum phosphate (AHP) and Trimer were prepared. The synergistic flame-retardant effects of the Trimer with AHP in EVA/AHP blends were studied by limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests, UL-94 tests, cone calorimeter tests, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LOI and UL-94 results showed that the system containing AHP and Trimer was very effective in improving the flame retardancy of EVA. When the mass ratio of AHP and Trimer was 3:1, the highest flame retardancy could be obtained, and when the flame-retardant loading was 30 wt%, the EVA/AHP/Trimer (7.5%) sample could achieve the V-0 rating in UL-94 tests, at the same time, its LOI value was 24.4%. The TG and DTG results showed that the addition of flame retardants catalyzes EVA decomposition in the first stage and generates a more stable char residue in the second stage. Consequently, an efficient reduction in the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate, total heat release, smoke production rate, and total smoke production could be observed. In addition, it was observed from the SEM observations of the morphological features that the AHP and Trimer combination, at the optimum proportion, could promote the formation of compact charred layers and prevent their cracking, which effectively protected the underlying materials from burning.


Aluminum phosphate Trimer Flame retardant Smoke suppression EVA 



The work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21306035 and 21276059) and the Key Basic Research Project of Hebei Province (Grant No. 16961402D).


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guang Yang
    • 1
  • Weihong Wu
    • 2
  • Huanxin Dong
    • 1
  • Yonghui Wang
    • 1
  • Hongqiang Qu
    • 1
  • Jianzhong Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental ScienceHebei UniversityBaodingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of ScienceAgriculture University of HebeiBaodingPeople’s Republic of China

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