Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 132, Issue 2, pp 1001–1015 | Cite as

Experimental investigation of rheological behavior of the hybrid nanofluid of MWCNT–alumina/water (80%)–ethylene-glycol (20%)

New correlation and margin of deviation
  • Ashkan Afshari
  • Mohammad Akbari
  • Davood Toghraie
  • Mohammad Eftekhari Yazdi


Nanofluids are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in the base fluid and can be substantially enhanced the heat transfer rate compared to the pure fluids. In this paper, experimental investigation of the effects of volume concentration and temperature on dynamic viscosity of the hybrid nanofluid of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and aluminum oxide in a mixture of water (80%) and ethylene-glycol (20%) has been presented. The nanofluid was prepared with solid volume fractions between 0.0625 and 1%, and experiments were performed in the temperature range of 25–50 °C. The measurement results at different shear rates showed that the base fluid and nanofluid samples with solid volume fractions of less than 0.5% had Newtonian behavior, while those with higher solid volume fractions (0.75 and 1%) exhibit a pseudoplastic rheological behavior with a power law index of less than unity. The results showed that viscosity has a direct relationship with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The value of maximum enhancement is which occurred in 25 °C. Moreover, the consistency index and power law index have been obtained by accurate curve fitting for samples with non-Newtonian behavior of nanofluids. The results also revealed that the apparent viscosity generally increases with an increase in the solid volume fraction.


Viscosity Non-Newtonian behavior Nanofluids Aluminum oxide Multi-walled carbon nanotubes 

List of symbols


Diameter (nm)


Mass (kg)


Temperature (°C)

Greek letters


Solid volume fraction (%)


Shear rate (s−1)


Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Density (kg m−3)


Shear stress (mPa)



Base fluid


Experimental data




Predicted value


Multi walled carbon nanotubes




Ethylene glycol


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashkan Afshari
    • 1
  • Mohammad Akbari
    • 2
  • Davood Toghraie
    • 3
  • Mohammad Eftekhari Yazdi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Central Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran

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