Development of a new density correlation for carbon-based nanofluids using response surface methodology
Density is among the fundamental thermo-physical characteristics of fluids that are examined prior to carrying out performance analysis of the fluid. In this study, the effect of the design variables on the density of nanofluids was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The quadratic model produced by RSM was employed to determine the performance factors, i.e., mass concentration and temperature with reasonably good accuracy. Improved experimental correlations were proposed for the density prediction of the carbon-based nanofluids based on the experimental data. Experimentally measured densities of two different nanofluids at the nanoparticle mass concentration of up to 0.1% and the temperature range of 20–40 °C were examined. The improvement in densities compared to the density of base fluid at 20 and 40 °C is approximately 0.15% for 0.1% fraction of MWCNT–COOH nanoparticles. Additionally, the densities of F-GNP nanofluids are increased by 0.056% compared to the density of distilled water. As a final point, the RSM results were compared with the results which got from the empirical data. It was detected that the optimal RSM model is accurate and the absolute maximum deviation measured values from the predicted densities of MWCNT–COOH and F-GNP nanofluids are 0.012 and 0.009%, respectively.
KeywordsThermo-physical properties Nanofluids Correlation Response surface methodology
The authors gratefully acknowledge UMRG Grant RP045C-17AET, University of Malaya, Malaysia, for support to conduct this research work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have received research grants from University of Malaya. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Chol S. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. ASME Publ Fed. 1995;231:99–106.Google Scholar
- 10.Montazer E, Salami E, Yarmand H, Kazi S, Badarudin A editors. The RSM approach to develop a new correlation for density of metal-oxide aqueous nanofluids. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineering. IOP Publishing; 2017.Google Scholar
- 15.Yarmand H, Gharehkhani S, Shirazi SFS, Amiri A, Alehashem MS, Dahari M, et al. Experimental investigation of thermo-physical properties, convective heat transfer and pressure drop of functionalized graphene nanoplatelets aqueous nanofluid in a square heated pipe. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;114:38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Nikkhah Z, Karimipour A, Safaei MR, Forghani-Tehrani P, Goodarzi M, Dahari M, et al. Forced convective heat transfer of water/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids in a microchannel with oscillating heat flux and slip boundary condition. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2015;68:69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Box GE, Draper NR. Empirical model-building and response surfaces. New York: Wiley; 1987.Google Scholar
- 48.Montazer E, Mirzaei M, Salami E, Ward T, Romli F, Kazi S, editors. Optimization of a synthetic jet actuator for flow control around an airfoil. IOP conference series: materials science and engineering. IOP Publishing; 2016.Google Scholar