Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 123, Issue 3, pp 2081–2090 | Cite as

DSC kinetic study of the incompatibility of doxepin with dextrose

Application to pharmaceutical preformulation studies
  • Faranak Ghaderi
  • Mahboob Nemati
  • Mohammad R. Siahi-Shadbad
  • Hadi Valizadeh
  • Farnaz Monajjemzadeh


In the present paper, the physicochemical incompatibility of doxepin with dextrose was evaluated in solid-state mixtures. The compatibility was evaluated using different physicochemical methods such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Non-isothermally stressed physical mixtures were used to study the solid-state kinetic parameters. Different thermal models such as Friedman, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose were used for the characterization of the drug–excipient mixtures. Overall, the incompatibility of doxepin as a tertiary amine with dextrose as a reducing carbohydrate was successfully assessed. DSC-based kinetic analysis is a simple and fast method in evaluation of different drug–excipient mixtures incompatibility. Finally, it can be recommended to exclude dextrose from doxepin pharmaceutical formulations and also to apply the easy and versatile DSC method in kinetic study of drug–excipient incompatibility.


Doxepin Dextrose Incompatibility Kinetic DSC Mass 



This paper was extracted from a PhD thesis (No: 91) submitted to faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and financially supported by the same University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faranak Ghaderi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mahboob Nemati
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mohammad R. Siahi-Shadbad
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hadi Valizadeh
    • 5
  • Farnaz Monajjemzadeh
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical and Food ControlTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Biotechnology Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Drug Applied Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Department of PharmaceuticsTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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