Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 121, Issue 2, pp 641–650 | Cite as

Effects of altitude and sample orientation on heat transfer for flame spread over polystyrene foams

  • Xinjie Huang
  • Jie Zhao
  • Ying Zhang
  • Yang Zhou
  • Qingsong Wang
  • Jinhua Sun


Experiments were carried out on insulation foams of EPS and XPS in a small-scale flame spread experimental bench in the Tibetan plateau area of Lhasa and the plain area of Hefei both in China, respectively. The effects of altitude and sample orientation on flame spread behavior were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that extinction and secondary ignition occur for XPS on plateau, as the oxygen concentration in air entrainment is influenced by the generated smoke in the pool fire zone. The flame spread speed of EPS increases with the incline angle both in Lhasa and in Hefei, but for XPS (downward flame spread), the flame spread speed increases with the decrease in incline angle, especially in Lhasa. It is found that the heat transfer process is different for EPS and XPS. The transition fire zone plays an important role in heat transfer over XPS for downward flame spread resulting in total heat transfer including the flame convective and radiative heat \( q_{\text{f}}^{\prime \prime } \delta_{\text{f}} \) and the conductive heat \( q_{\text{c}}^{\prime \prime } L \) increase with the decrease in incline angle, while for EPS, the surface flame zone dominates the heat transfer in two places.


Incline angle EPS XPS Heat transfer Flame spread Extinction 



This study has been funded by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant. No. 2012CB719702), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51206002), and the open fund of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (No. HZ2012-KF04). The authors gratefully acknowledge these supports.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinjie Huang
    • 1
  • Jie Zhao
    • 1
  • Ying Zhang
    • 2
  • Yang Zhou
    • 3
  • Qingsong Wang
    • 3
  • Jinhua Sun
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureAnhui University of TechnologyMa’anshanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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