Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 120, Issue 1, pp 439–448 | Cite as

Gamma irradiation for improving functional ingredients and determining the heat treatment conditions of Cordyceps militaris mycelia

  • Hsiang-Yu Lin
  • Shu-Yao Tsai
  • Yu-Lun Tseng
  • Chun-Ping Lin


Food irradiation can confirm hygienic quality and prolong the product shelf life. However, due to lack of international consensus, effective identification methods and detailed quality characterization are required for the general use of this technology. Polysaccharide was prepared by hot water extraction of Cordyceps militaris mycelia which was irradiated at 0, 10, and 20 kGy. The polysaccharide content was in the range of 29.70–44.82 mg g−1 and then increased significantly with γ-irradiation (0–20 kGy); along with increasing doses of the polysaccharides’ molecular weight distributions increased. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the endothermic and exothermic enthalpies of the polysaccharide of C. militaris mycelia. This study was conducted to develop a novel approach to thermal decomposition that includes the heat decomposition properties and storage conditions of the polysaccharide of C. militaris mycelia, such as the kinetics of reaction, pre-exponential factor (lnk 0), reaction order (n), activation energy (E a), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), total energy release, and time to conversion limit. The properties and parameters could be applied to a design during food processing, heat treatment, and storage conditions.


Cordyceps militaris γ-Irradiation Polysaccharide Food processing Heat treatment 



We are indebted to the donors of Asia University and China Medical University in Taiwan under the Contract Number ASIA102-CMU-4 for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Furuya T, Hirotani M, Matsuzawa M. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl) adenosine, a biologically active compound from cultured mycelia of 90 Cordyceps and Isaria species. Phytochemistry. 1983;22:2509–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu ZL, Wang XX, Cheng WY. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris on human glomerular mesangial cell proliferation induced by native LDL. Cell Biochem Funct. 2000;18(2):93–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoo HS, Shin JW, Cho JH, Son CG, Lee YW, Park SY, Cho CK. Effects of Cordyceps militaris extract on angiogenesis and tumor growth. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25(5):657–65.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hsieh C, Tsai MJ, Hsu TH, Chang DM, Lo CT. Medium optimization for polysaccharide production of Cordyceps sinensis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2005;120(2):145–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamburger M. Comment on comparison of protective effects between cultured Cordyceps militaris and natural Cordyceps sinensis against oxidative damage. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(17):7213–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim J, Remick DG. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors for the treatment of asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2007;7(2):151–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crawford LM, Ruff EH. A review of the safety of cold pasteurization through irradiation. Food Control. 1996;7(2):87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calucci L, Pinzino C, Zandomeneghi M, Capocchi A, Ghiringhelli S, Saviozzi F, Tozzi S, Galleschi L. Effects of γ-irradiation on the free radical and antioxidation contents in nine aromatic herbs and spices. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(4):927–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang SJ, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Agaricus blazei with various doses of γ-irradiation. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2006;39(7):707–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu XG, Zhao ZH, Feng ZY, Wang YS, Xing ZG. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on postharvest quality and selected enzyme activities of Hypsizygus marmoreus fruit bodies. Food Chem. 2007;55(20):8126–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khattak KF, Simpson TJ. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root. Radiat Phys Chem. 2010;79(4):507–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sommer I, Schwartz H, Solar S, Sontag G. Effect of γ-irradiation on agaritine, γ-glutaminyl-4-hydroxybenzene (GHB), antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(13):5790–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akram K, Ahn JJ, Yoon SR, Kim GR, Kwon JH. Quality attributes of Pleurotus eryngii following gamma irradiation. Postharvest Biol Technol. 2012;66:42–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang SJ, Tsai SY, Lee YL, Mau JL. Nonvolatile taste components of fruit bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2006;39(6):577–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hung LT, Keawsompong S, Hanh VT, Sivichai S, Hywel-Jones NL. Effect of temperature on cordycepin production in Cordyceps militaris. Thai J Agric Sci. 2009;42(2):219–25.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Manabe N, Sugimoto M, Azuma Y, Take-tomo N, Yamashita A, Tsuboi H, Tsunco A, Kinjo N, Huang NL, Miyamoto H. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1996;70(1):85–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Masuda M, Urabe E, Honda H, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M. Enhanced production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2007;40(5):1199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park JP, Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Yun JW. Optimization of submerged culture conditions for the mycelia growth and exobiopolymer production by Cordyceps militaris. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;33(1):76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rao YK, Chou CH, Tzeng YM. A simple and rapid method for identification and determination of cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris by capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta. 2006;566(2):253–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shih IL, Tsai KL, Hsieh C. Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris. Biochem Eng J. 2007;33(3):193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matthews CE, Holde Van KE, Ahern KG. Biochemistry. 1999. 3rd ed. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-3066-6.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li KY, Tsai SY, Lin CP, Tsai YT, Shu CM. Smart technology for evaluating fire extinguishing effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2013;52(32):10969–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin CP, Tseng JM. Green technology for improving process manufacturing design and storage management of organic peroxide. Chem Eng J. 2012;180:284–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tseng JM, Lin JZ, Lee CC, Lin CP. Prediction TMCH thermal hazard with various calorimetric tests by green thermal analysis technology. AIChE J. 2012;58(12):3792–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem. 1956;28:350–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hsiang-Yu Lin
    • 1
  • Shu-Yao Tsai
    • 2
  • Yu-Lun Tseng
    • 2
  • Chun-Ping Lin
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neonatology, Children’s Hospital, China Medical University HospitalChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Health and Nutrition BiotechnologyAsia UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.Department of Medical Research, China Medical University HospitalChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations