Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 119, Issue 1, pp 131–144 | Cite as

A comparative study on the effect of different reaction conditions on graft co-polymerization, swelling, and thermal properties of Gum ghatti-based hydrogels

  • Hemant Mittal
  • Balbir S. Kaith
  • Rajeev Jindal
  • Shivani B. Mishra
  • Ajay K. Mishra
Article

Abstract

This research paper deals with the comparative study of different reaction conditions i.e., in-air, under the influence of microwave radiations and under pressure on the thermal, physico-chemical and graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto Gum ghatti-based hydrogels using potassium persulphate–ascorbic acid as a redox initiator and N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinking agent. Synthesized hydrogels were characterized using FT-IR, SEM, and XRD techniques. Thermal properties of the candidate polymers were examined using TG, DTA, and DTG studies. Moreover, swelling properties of the candidate polymers were studied in deionized water as a function of time, temperature, and pH of the swelling medium. Ionic strength and ionic charges of different cations have been found to have pronounced effect on the swelling capacity of the hydrogels. Swelling–deswelling–reswelling kinetics was studied in response to change in pH of the swelling medium. Moreover, the synthesized hydrogels were successfully utilized for the selective removal of saline from different petroleum fraction saline emulsions.

Keywords

Gum ghatti Graft co-polymerization Swelling Thermal properties Petroleum fraction–saline emulsions 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to National Research Foundation (NRF), South Africa for awarding Post-Doctoral research fellowship to Hemant Mittal.

References

  1. 1.
    da Silva Filho EC, Santana SAA, Melo JCP, Oliveira FJVE, Airoldi C. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry data of cellulose, chlorodeoxycellulose and aminodeoxycellulose. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;100:315–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kau YC, Chen DWC, Hsieh YT, Lee FY, Liu SJ. Compression molding of biodegradable drug-eluting implants for sustained release of metronidazole and doxycycline. J Appl Polym Sci. 2013;127:554–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deshmukh M, Kutscher HL, Gao D, Sunil VR, Malaviya R, Vayas K, Stein S, Laskin JD, Laskin DL, Sinko PJ. Biodistribution and renal clearance of biocompatible lung targeted poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanogel aggregates. J Control Release. 2012;164:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pani P, Signorelli M, Schiraldi A, Torreggiani D. Osmo-dehydration of apple pulp studied by means of classical and Knudsen thermogravimetric approach. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;102:383–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braga RM, Melo DMA, Aquino FM, Freitas JCO, Melo MAF, Barros JMF, Fontes MSB. Characterization and comparative study of pyrolysis kinetics of the rice husk and the elephant grass. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;115:1915–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Horzum N, Boyac E, Eroglu AE, Shahwan T, Demir MM. Sorption efficiency of chitosan nanofibers toward metal ions at low concentrations. Biomacromolecules. 2012;11:3301–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaewtatip K, Tanrattanakul V, Szecsenyi KM, Pavlicevic J, Simendi JB. Thermal properties and morphology of cassava starch grafted with different content of polystyrene. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;120:1035–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodriguez A, Sain M, Jeng R. Thermal characterization of starch-based polymers produced by Ophiostoma spp. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;98:317–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu Y, Liu X, Wang X, Yang J, Yang XJ, Lu L. Gelatin-g-poly(methyl methacrylate)/silver nanoparticles hybrid films and the evaluation of their antibacterial activity. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;116:2617–25.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wasserman LA, Signorelli M, Schiraldi A, Yuryev V, Boggini G, Bertini S, Fessas D. Preparation of wheat resistant starch: treatment of gels and DSC characterization. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;1:153–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jankovi B, Adnaevi B, Jovanovi J. Isothermal kinetics of dehydration of equilibrium swollen poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;92:821–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bellich B, Borgogna M, Cok M, Cesaro A. Water evaporation from gel beads: a calorimetric approach to hydrogel matrix release properties. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;103:81–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchholz FL, Graham AT. Modern superabsorbent polymer technology. New York: Wiley; 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fares MM, El-faqeeh AS, Ghanem H, Osman ME, Hassan EA. Hydrogels of starch-g-(tert-butylacrylate) and starch-g-(n-butylacrylate) copolymers: synthesis and formation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;99:659–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malchova AE, Zaborshchikova NV, Knyazev AA, Smirnova LA, Izvozchikova VA, Medvedeva VV, Semchikov DY. Graft copolymerization of acrylamide on chitosan: copolymer structure and properties. Polym Sci Ser A. 2006;48:918–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh V, Tiwari A, Tripathi DN, Sanghi R. Microwave enhanced synthesis of chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide. Polymer. 2006;47:254–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tian D, Xie HQ. Synthesis and flocculation characterization of Konjac glucomannan-g-polyacrylamide. Polym Bull. 2008;61:277–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sanghi R, Bhattacharya B, Singh V. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions. Bioresour Technol. 2006;97:1259–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singh V, Tiwari A, Tripathi DN, Sanghi R. Microwave assisted synthesis of guar-g-poly(acrylamide). Carbohydr Polym. 2004;58:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaith BS, Kumar K. In vacuum synthesis of psyllium and acrylic acid based hydrogels for selective water absorption from different oil–water emulsions. Desalination. 2008;229:331–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaith BS, Kumar K. In air synthesis of Psy-cl-poly(AAm) network and its application in water absorption from oil–water emulsions. eXPRESS Polym Lett. 2007;1:474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malik H, Gupta N, Sarkar A. Anisotropic electrical conduction in gum arabica—a biopolymer. Mater Sci Eng C. 2002;20:215–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patterson AL. The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Phys Rev. 1939;56:978–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaur I, Sharma M. Synthesis and characterization of graft copolymers of Sago starch and acrylic acid. Starch/Starke. 2012;64:441–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaith BS, Jindal R, Mittal H, Kumar K. Synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior evaluation of Gum ghatti and acrylamide based hydrogel for selective absorption of saline from different petroleum fraction–saline emulsions. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;124:2037–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mittal H, Kaith BS, Jindal R. Synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior of poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) grafted Gum ghatti based superabsorbent hydrogels. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2010;2010(1):56–66.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guo J, Li L, Ti Y, Zhu J. Synthesis and properties of a novel pH sensitive poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone-co-sulfadiazine) hydrogel. eXPRESS Polym Lett. 2007;1:166–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaith BS, Jindal R, Jana AK, Maiti M. Characterization and evaluation of methyl methacrylate-acetylated Saccharum spontaneum L. graft copolymers prepared under microwave. Carbohydr Polym. 2009;78:987–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang L, Xu Y. Preparation and characterization of graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate onto hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in aqueous medium. Cellulose. 2006;13:191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaur I, Khanna D. Synthesis and characterization of dextrin grafted polypropylene. J Appl Polym Sci. 2011;119:1090–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumar K, Kaith BS, Mittal H. A study on effect of different reaction conditions on grafting of psyllium and acrylic acid based polymeric networks. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;123:1874–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Singha AS, Sharma A, Thakur VK. Pressure induced graft co-polymerization of acrylonitrile onto Saccharum cilliare fibre and evaluation of some properties of grafted fibre. Bull Mater Sci. 2008;31:7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pourjavadi A, Barzegar Sh, Mahdavinia GR. MBA-crosslinked Na–Alg/CMC as a smart full-polysaccharide superabsorbent hydrogels. Carbohydr Polym. 2006;66:386–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xu FJ, Kang ET, Neoh KG. pH- and temperature-responsive hydrogels from crosslinked triblock copolymers prepared via consecutive atom transfer radical polymerization. Biomaterials. 2006;27:2787–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zaldivar MP, Fernandez NG, Pena CG, Paneque MP, Valentin SA. Synthesis and characterization of a new semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel obtained by gamma radiations. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;106:725–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Behari K, Pandey PK, Kumar R, Taunk K. Graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto Gum xanthan. Carbohydr Polym. 2001;46:185–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kaith BS, Kumar K. Selective absorption of water from different oil–water emulsions with Psy-cl-poly(AAm) synthesized using irradiation copolymerization method. Bull Mater Sci. 2007;30:387–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feil H, Bae YH, Feijen J, Kim SW. Mutual influence of pH and temperature on the swelling of ionizable and thermosensitive hydrogels. Macromolecules. 1993;26:2496–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Inomato H, Goto S, Saito S. Phase transition of N-substituted acrylamide gels. Macromolecules. 1990;23:4887–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bajpai SK. Casein crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogels: study of swelling and drug release behaviour. Iran Polym J. 1999;8:231–9.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mahdavinia GR, Pourjavadi A, Hosseizadeh H, Zohuriaan MJ. Modified chitosan 4. Superabsorbent hydrogels from poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) grafted chitosan with salt- and pH-responsiveness properties. Euro Polym J. 2004;40:1399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kaith BS, Ranjta S, Kumar K. In-air synthesis of GA-cl-poly(MAA) hydrogel and study of its salt-resistant swelling behavior in different salts. e-Polymers. 2008. p. 158.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgDoornfonteinSouth Africa
  2. 2.DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured MaterialsCouncil for Scientific and Industrial ResearchPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryNational Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia

Personalised recommendations