Comparison and validation of methods for estimating heat generation rate of large-format lithium-ion batteries
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The heat generation rate of a large-format 25 Ah lithium-ion battery is studied through estimating each term of the Bernardi model. The term for the reversible heat is estimated from the entropy coefficient and compared with the result from the calorimetric method. The term for the irreversible heat is estimated from the intermittent current method, the V–I characteristics method and a newly developed energy method. Using the obtained heat generation rates, the average cell temperature rise under 1C charge/discharge is calculated and validated against the results measured in an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). It is found that the intermittent current method with an appropriate interval and the V–I characteristics method using a pouch cell yield close agreement, while the energy method is less accurate. A number of techniques are found to be effective in circumventing the difficulties encountered in estimating the heat generation rate for large-format lithium-ion batteries. A pouch cell, using the same electrode as the 25 Ah cell but with much reduced capacity (288 mAh), is employed to avoid the significant temperature rise in the V–I characteristics method. The first-order inertial system is utilized to correct the delay in the surface temperature rise relative to the internal heat generation. Twelve thermocouples are used to account for the temperature distribution.
KeywordsLithium-ion battery Heat generation rate Energy method V–I characteristics method Intermittent current method
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number of 51207080, the Independent Research Programs of Tsinghua University under the subject number of 2011Z01004, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under the Grant number of 2012M510436.
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