Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 1487–1496 | Cite as

Thermal stability of amine-functionalized MCM-41 in different atmospheres

  • Ephraim Vunain
  • Naftali N. Opembe
  • Kalala Jalama
  • Ajay K. Mishra
  • Reinout Meijboom
Article

Abstract

In the present work, we report on the thermal stability of NH2-MCM-41 hybrid material under different atmospheres (nitrogen and air). The thermal stability of this hybrid material is very important because of its common use in catalysis, adsorption, biomedical and biotechnological applications, based on mesoporous and aminopropyl functionalities. Samples were prepared by one pot co-condensation method with different loadings of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The thermal stability of hybrid samples (NH2-MCM-41) heat treated in nitrogen and air at 30–800 °C has been investigated. Samples were synthesized under basic media in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) as structure-directing agent, tetraethyl orthosilicate as silica source, and APTES as functionalizing agent with molar composition of 0.055 CTABr:045 SiO2:0.054 APTES:5.32 NH4OH:14.99 H2O at 50 °C for 24 h at pH 12.4. The obtained hybrid materials have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), derivative thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and surface area determination by the BET method. Based on TG measurements of the treated samples, it was found out that the thermal stability varied greatly in different atmospheres.

Keywords

Amine-functionalized MCM-41 Thermal stability Air Nitrogen 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the financial support of the Research Centre for Synthesis and Catalysis of the University of Johannesburg; South African National Research Foundation (NRF). Thanks to Mr D. Harris and Dr R. Meyer (Shimadzu South Africa) for the use of their equipment.

References

  1. 1.
    Kresge CT, Leonowicz ME, Roth WJ, Vartuli JC, Beck JS. Ordered mesoporous molecular sieves synthesized by a liquid-crystal template mechanism. Nature. 1992;359:710–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bore MT, Mokhonoana MP, Ward TL, Coville NJ, Datye AK. Synthesis and reactivity of gold nanoparticles supported on transition metal doped mesoporous silica. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2006;95:118–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Byunghwan L, Zhen M, Zongtao Z, Chulhwan P, Sheng D. Influences of synthesis conditions and mesoporous structures on the gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica host. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2009;122:160–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abolfazl J, Seyed AAM, Bahamin B, Amin M. Enhancement in thermal and hydrothermal stability of novel mesoporous MCM-41. J Porous Mater. 2012;19:979–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Renata MB, Joana MFB, Duke MAM, Marcus AFM, Flavia de MA, de Julio Cezar O, Rodrigo CS. Kinetic study of template removal of MCM-41 derived from rice husk ash. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;111:1013–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hartmann M. Ordered mesoporous materials for bio-adsorption and biocatalysis. Chem Mater. 2005;17:4577–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wan Y, Zhao DY. On the controllable soft-templating approach to mesoporous silicates. Chem Rev. 2007;107:2821–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iliade P, Miletto I, Coluccia S, Berlier G. Functionalization of mesoporous MCM-41 with aminopropyl groups by co-condensation and grafting: a physico-chemical characterization. Res Chem Intermed. 2012;38:785–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parveen K, Vadim VG. Periodic mesoporous organic–inorganic hybrid materials: applications in membrane separations and adsorption. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2010;132:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haresh GM, Enrica G, Yasuhiro S, Osamu T, Salvatore C, Simonetta. Active biocatalysts based on pepsin immobilized in mesoporous SBA-15. J Phys Chem C. 2008;112:18110–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xueguang W, Yao-Hung T, Jerry CCC, Soofin C. Direct synthesis of highly ordered large-pore functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 silica with methylaminopropyl groups and its catalytic reactivity in flavanone synthesis. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2005;85:241–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang X, Chen JCC, Tseng Y-H, Cheng S. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of ordered SBA-15 materials containing high loadings of diamines functional groups. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2006;95:57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y, Zibrowins B, Yang C-M, Spliethoff B, Schuth F. Synthesis and characterization of large pore vinyl-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15. Chem Commun. 2004;46–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darragh G, Jakki C, Edmond M. Modification of mesoporous silicates for immobilization of enzymes. Top Catal. 2012;55:1101–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Margandan B, Lee JY, Ramani A, Hyun TJ. Synthesis of chloropropylamine grafted mesoporous MCM-41, MCM-48 and SBA-15 from rice husk ash: their application to CO2 chemisorption. J Porous Mater. 2010;17:475–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raúl S, Guillermo C, Amaya A, Sanz-Pérez E. Amino functionalized mesostructured SBA-15 silica for CO2 capture: exploring the relation between the adsorption capacity and the distribution of aminogroups by TEM. Microporous Mesoporous Materials. 2012;158:309–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wei Q, Chen HQ, Nie ZR, Hao YL, Wang YL, Li QY, Zou JX. Preparation and characterization of vinyl-functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 by direct synthesis method. Mater Lett. 2007;61:1469–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fanpeng S, Shujie W, Jingqi G, Jianrui S, Heng L, Chunhua W, Qiubin K. A comparative study of aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 prepared by grafting in different solvents. Reac Kinet Mech Catal. 2011;103:181–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sujandi Eko AP, Sang-Eon P. Synthesis of short-channelled amino-functionalized SBA-15 and its beneficial applications in base-catalyzed reactions. Appl Catal A Gen. 2008;350:244–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soofin C, Xueguang W, Shih-Yuan C. Applications of amine-functionalized mesoporous silica in fine chemical synthesis. Top Catal. 2009;52:681–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parida KM, Mallick S, Sahoo PC, Rana SK. A facile method for synthesis of amine-functionalized mesoporous zirconia and its catalytic evaluation in Knoevenagel condensation. Appl Catal A Gen. 2010;381:226–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parida KM, Dharitri R. Amine functionalized MCM-41: an active and reusable catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. J Mol Catal A Chem. 2009;310:93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kenneth SWS. Physisorption of nitrogen by porous materials. J Porous Mater. 1995;2:5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chong ASM, Zhao XS. Functionalization of SBA-15 with APTES and characterization of functionalized materials. J Phys Chem B. 2003;107:12650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Molinari A, Maldotti A, Bratovcic A, Magnacca G. Fe(III)-porphyrin hetrogenized on MCM-41: matrix effects on the oxidation of 1,4-pentanedol. Catal Today. 2011;161:64–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xueguang W, Kyle S, Lin K, Jerry C, Chan C, Soofin C. Direct synthesis and catalytic applications of ordered large pore aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:1763–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Toshiyuki Y, Hideaki Y, Takashi T. Synthesis of amino-functionalized MCM-41 via direct co-condensation and post-synthesis grafting methods using mono-, di- and tri-amino-organoalkoxysilanes. J Mater Chem. 2004;14:951–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lin G, Jihong S, Yuzhen L. Functionalized bimodal mesoporoussilicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery. J Solid State Chem. 2011;184:1909–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luigi P, Flaviano T, Rosario A, Sante C, Janos BN. Preparation of bifunctional hybrid mesoporous silica potentially useful for drug targeting. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2007;103:166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    El-Shekeil YA, Sapuan SM, Khalina A, Zainudin ES, Al-Shuja’a OM. Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaffiber-reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;109:1435–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim HS, Yang HS, Kim HJ, Park HJ. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice husk flour filled thermoplastic polymer composites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;76:395–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tongge L, Gang L, Zhang N, Yongying C. An inorganic–organic hybrid optical sensor for heavy metal ion detection based on immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol on functionalized HMS. J Hazard Mater. 2012;201–202:155–61.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao XS, Lu GQ, Whittaker AK, Millar GJ, Zhu HY. Comprehensive study of surface chemistry of MCM-41 using 29SiCP/MAS NMR, FTIR, pyridine-TPD and TGA. J Phys Chem B. 1997;101:6525–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Centre for Synthesis and Catalysis, Department of ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations