Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 114, Issue 3, pp 1333–1339 | Cite as

The effect of melt flow index, melt flow rate, and particle size on the thermal degradation of commercial high density polyethylene powder

  • Mehrdad Seifali Abbas-Abadi
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh Haghighi
  • Hamid Yeganeh
  • Babak Bozorgi
Article

Abstract

The powder of EX5 grade of high density polyethylene—without any additives—manufactured by Amirkabir petrochemical company was separated by shaker equipment. The separated powder of average diameter ~25, ~62.5, ~87.5, ~112.5, ~137.5, ~175 and the particles >200 μm was tested by a thermogravimetric (TG) analysis instrument in nitrogen atmosphere and heating rates of 10, 20, and 30 °C min−1. In addition, the separated powders were analyzed by a melt flow index (MFI) instrument, and the viscosity average molecular mass (M v) of the powders was tested by a viscometer. Kinetic evaluations were performed by Friedman and Kissinger analysis methods and apparent activation energy for the overall degradation of the powders was determined. The effects of molecular mass, MFI, MFR, and particle size on the degradation TG curve, derivative thermogravimetry curve breadth, and activation energy of thermal degradation were considered. The results showed that the M v of EX5 pipe grade produced by two serial reactors is increased by increasing of the particle size and, MFI is decreased with a little deviation by particle size increasing. The particle size has no obvious effect on the melt flow rate (MFR), and MFR as function of molecular mass distribution does not change very much. The results showed that the powder with bigger particles and higher molecular mass moderately increases the activation energy and shifts the degradation curve to the higher temperatures.

Keywords

HDPE Particle size Thermal degradation Molecular mass MFI MFR TG DTG 

References

  1. 1.
    Zong R, Wang Zh, Liu N, Hu Y, Liao G. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyethylene and silane-crosslinked polyethylene. J Appl Polym Sci. 2005;98:1172–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou L, Wang Y, Huang Q, Cai J. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetic of plastic and biomass blends co-pyrolysis. Fuel Process Technol. 2006;87:963–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cai J, Wang Y, Zhou L, Huang Q. Thermal behaviour of coal/biomass blends during co-pyrolysis. Fuel Process Technol. 2008;89:21–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marcilla A, Gómez-Siurana A, Odjo AO, Navarro R, Berenguer D. Characterization of vacuum gas oil-low density polyethylene blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Polym Degrad Stab. 2008;93:723–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nam JD, Seferis JC. Generalized composite degradation kinetics for polymeric systems and nonisothermal conditions. J Polym Sci B. 1992;30:455–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Price DM, Hourston DJ, Dumont F. Thermogravimetry of polymers. In Meyers RA, editor. Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. New York: Wiley; 2000. p. 8094–105.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ozawa T. A new method of analyzing thermogravimetric data. Bull Chem Soc Jpn. 1965;38:1881–6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Flynn JH, Wall LA. A quick, direct method for the determination of activation energy from thermogravimetric data. Polym Lett. 1966;4:323–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kissinger HE. Reaction kinetics in differential thermal analysis. J Anal Chem. 1957;29:1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Opfermann J, Kaisersberger E. An advantageous variant of the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall analysis. Thermochim Acta. 1992;203:167–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanungo SB. Kinetics of solid state reactions under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. J Indian Chem Soc. 2005;82(4):315–28.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mamleev V. Three model-free methods for calculation of activation energy in TG. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;78(3):1009–27.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Simon P. Isoconversional methods—fundamentals, meaning and application. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;76(1):123–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jeon MJ, Choi SJ, Yoo K, Ryu C, Park SH, Lee JM, Jeon JK, Park YK, Kim S. Copyrolysis of polypropylene with waste wood chip. Korean J Chem Eng. 2011;28(2):497–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cullis CF, Hirschler MM. The combustion of organic polymers. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peacock AJ. Handbook of polyethylene: structures, properties and applications. Ch. 3. New york: Marcel Dekker; 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cristiano HF, Mario JM. Analysis of an industrial continuous slurry reactor for ethylene–butene copolymerization. Polymer. 2004;46:2922–32.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soares JBP. Effect of reactor residence time distribution on the size distribution of polymer particles made with heterogeneous Ziegler–Natta and supported metallocene catalysts: a generic mathematical model. Macromolecule. 1995;4:1085–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mori H, Endo M, Terano M. Study of activity enhancement by hydrogen in propylene polymerization using stopped-flow and conventional methods. J Mol Catal A. 1999;145:211–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seifali Abbas-Abadi M, Nekoomanesh Haghighi M, Bahri Laleh N, Akbari Z, Tavasoli MR, Mirjahanmardi SH. Polyolefin production using an improved catalyst system. 2011; US2011/0152483.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paik P, Kar KK. Kinetics of thermal degradation and estimation of lifetime for polypropylene particles: effects of particle size. Polym Degrad Stab. 2008;93:24–35.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paik P, Kar KK. Thermal degradation kinetics and estimation of lifetime of polyethylene particles: effects of particle size. Mater Chem Phys. 2009;113:953–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cho Y-S, Shim M-J, Kim S-W. Thermal degradation kinetics of PE by Kissinger equation. Mater Chem Phys. 1998;52:94–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sánchez-Jiménez PE, Pérez-Maqueda LA, Perejòn A, Criado JM. Combined kinetic analysis of thermal degradation of polymeric materials under any thermal pathway. Polym Degrad Stab. 2009;94:2079–85.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karoglanian SA, Harfuson IR. A temperature rising elution fractionation study of short chain branching behavior in ultra low density polyethylene. Polym Eng Sci. 1996;36(5):731–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang M, Lynch DT, Wanke SE. Characterization of commercial linear low-density polyethylene by TREF-DSC and TREF-SEC cross-fractionation. J Appl Polym Sci. 2000;75:960–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seifali Abbas-Abadi M, Nekoomanesh Haghighi M, Yeganeh H. Effect of the melt flow index and melt flow rate on the thermal degradation kinetics of commercial polyolefins. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;126:1739–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrdad Seifali Abbas-Abadi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Nekoomanesh Haghighi
    • 1
  • Hamid Yeganeh
    • 1
  • Babak Bozorgi
    • 2
  1. 1.Polymerization EngineeringIran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI)TehranIran
  2. 2.GC LaboratoryNational Petrochemical Company, Research and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations