Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 265–271 | Cite as

Thermal behaviour studies of procaine and benzocaine

Part 1. Kinetic analysis of the active substances under non-isothermal conditions
  • Adriana Fulias
  • Gabriela Vlase
  • Carmen Grigorie
  • Ionuţ Ledeţi
  • Paul Albu
  • Mihai Bilanin
  • Titus Vlase
Article

Abstract

The analysed substances, procaine and benzocaine, are two anaesthetic agents currently being administered in tablet form, also in the topical (cream, gel, balm) and injectable dosage forms. The TG/DTG/DTA curves were obtained in air at different heating rates. For determination of the heat effects, the DTA curves (in μV) were changed with the heat flow curves (in mW), so that the peak area corresponds to an energy in J g−1 or kJ mol−1. The non-isothermal experiments are preformed to investigate the thermal degradation process of these active substances, both as a solid and are performed in a dynamic atmosphere of air at different heating rates, by heating from room temperature to 500 °C. The kinetic analysis was performed using the TG data in air for the first step of substance’s decomposition at four heating rates: 7, 10, 12 and 15 °C min−1. The data were processed according to an appropriate strategy to the following kinetic methods: Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, Friedman and NPK, to obtain realistic kinetic parameters, even if the decomposition process is a complex one. Thermal analysis was supplemented using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with the TG device to identify the anaesthetics with any products which may have formed (EGA—the evolved gas analysis).

Keywords

Procaine Benzocaine Kinetic parameters Non-isothermal conditions NPK method 

References

  1. 1.
    Dhananjeyan MR, Trendel JA, Bykowski C, Sarver JG, Ando H, Erhardt PW. Rapid and sensitive HPLC assay for simultaneous determination of procaine and para-aminobenzoic acid from human and rat liver tissue extracts. J Chromatogr B. 2008;867:247–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lv G, Chen Z, Zheng J, Wei F, Jiang H, Zhang R, Wang X. Theoretical study of the interaction pattern and the binding affinity between procaine and DNA bases. J Mol Struct. 2010;939:44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shin S-C, Lee J-W, Yang K-H, Lee CH. Preparation and evaluation of bioadhesive benzocaine gels for enhanced local anesthetic effects. Int J Pharm. 2003;260:77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    So T-Y, Farrington E. Topical benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia in the pediatric population. J Pediatr Health Care. 2008;22:335–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmidt AC. Structural characteristics and crystal polymorphism of three local anaesthetic bases: crystal polymorphism of local anaesthetic drugs: part VII. Int J Pharm. 2005;298:186–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Byrn SR, Pfeiffer RR, Stowell JG. Solid-state chemistry of drugs. 2nd ed. West Lafayette: SSCI, Inc.; 1999. p. 279–304.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fulias A, Vlase T, Vlase G, Doca N. Thermal behaviour of cephalexin in different mixtures. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;99:987–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peres-Filho MJ, Gaeti MPN, Oliveira SR, Marreto RN, Lima EM. Thermoanalytical investigation of olanzapine compatibility with excipients used in solid oral dosage forms. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;104:255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshida MI, Oliveira MA, Gomes ECL, Mussel WN, Castro WV. Thermal characterization of lovastatin in pharmaceutical formulations. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;106:657–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maximiano FP, Novack KM, Bahia MT, de Sá-Barreto LL, da Cunha-Filho MSS. Polymorphic screen and drug-excipient compatibility studies of the antichagasic benznidazole. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;106:819–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vlase T, Vlase G, Birta N, Doca N. Comparative results of kinetic data obtained with different methods for complex decomposition steps. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;88:631–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vlase T, Vlase G, Doca M, Doca N. Specificity of decomposition of solids in non-isothermal conditions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2003;72:597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Council of Europe. European pharmacopoeia. 6th ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2007.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman HL. New methods for evaluating kinetic parameters from thermal analysis data. J Polym Sci C. 1965;6:183–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ozawa T. A new method of analyzing thermogravimetric data. Bull Chem Soc Jpn. 1965;38:1881–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kissinger HE. Reaction kinetics in differential thermal analysis. Anal Chem. 1957;29:1702–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akahira T, Sunose T. Joint convention of four electrical institutes. Research report Chiba Institute of Technology. Sci Technol. 1971;16:22–31.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Serra R, Nomen R, Sempere J. The non-parametric kinetics. A new method for the kinetic study of thermoanalytical data. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1998;52:933–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Serra R, Sempere J, Nomen R. A new method for the kinetic study of thermoanalytical data: the non-parametric kinetics method. Thermochim Acta. 1998;316:37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vlase T, Vlase G, Doca N, Ilia G, Fuliaş A. Coupled thermogravimetric-IR techniques and kinetic analysis by non-isothermal decomposition of Cd2+ and Co2+ vinyl-phosphonates. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;97:467–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bodescu AM, Sîrghie C, Vlase T, Doca N. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of natrium oxalato-oxo-diperoxo molibdate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;. doi: 10.1007/s10973-011-1993-8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vlase T, Vlase G, Doca N, Bolcu C. Processing of non-isothermal TG data. Comparative kinetic analysis with NPK method. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2005;80:59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Doyle CD. Estimating isothermal life from thermogravimetric data. J Appl Sci. 1962;6:639–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wall ME. Singular value decomposition and principal component analysis. In: Berrar DP, Dubitzky W, Granzow M, editors. A practical approach to microarray data analysis. Norwell: Kluwer; 2003. p. 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Šesták J, Berggren G. Study of the kinetics of the mechanism of solid-state reactions at increasing temperatures. Thermochim Acta. 1971;3:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Fulias
    • 1
  • Gabriela Vlase
    • 2
  • Carmen Grigorie
    • 2
  • Ionuţ Ledeţi
    • 1
  • Paul Albu
    • 3
  • Mihai Bilanin
    • 2
  • Titus Vlase
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”TimişoaraRomania
  2. 2.Research Centre for Thermal Analysis in Environmental Problems, West University of TimisoaraTimişoaraRomania
  3. 3.Pharmacy and Dentistry, Department of PharmacyFaculty of General Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” West University of AradAradRomania

Personalised recommendations