Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 111, Issue 2, pp 1183–1188 | Cite as

Thermal behavior of new oxidizer ammonium dinitramide

  • Hiroki Matsunaga
  • Hiroto Habu
  • Atsumi MiyakeEmail author


Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is a promising new oxidizer for solid propellants because of its high oxygen balance and high energy content, and halogen-free combustion products. One of the characteristics needed for solid propellants is stability. Heat, light, and moisture are factors affecting stability during storage, manufacture, and use. For practical use of ADN as a solid propellant, clarification of the mechanism of decomposition by these factors is needed to be able to predict lifetime. This study focused on thermal decomposition of ADN. Exothermal behavior of ADN decomposition was measured by isothermal tests using high-sensitive calorimetry (TAM) and non-isothermal tests using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Based on these results, analysis of the decomposition kinetics was conducted. The activation energy determined by TAM tests was lower than that from DSC tests. Thus, the decomposition path in TAM tests was different from that in DSC tests. The amount of ADN decomposition predicted from TAM tests was closer to that found under real storage conditions than the amount of decomposition predicted from DSC tests. Non-isothermal tests may not be able to precisely predict the lifetime of materials with a decomposition mechanism that changes with temperature, such as ADN. The lifetime predicted from DSC results was much longer than that from TAM tests especially at low temperature. It is necessary to use isothermal tests to predict the long-term stability at low temperature.


Aging Ammonium dinitramide Thermal decomposition Lifetime prediction 



The authors are grateful to Dr. Yuji Wada and Dr. Yusuke Wada of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology of Japan for their fruitful discussions, and also to Hosoya Pyro-Engineering Co., Ltd. for providing samples.


  1. 1.
    Guerya JF, Chang IS, Shimada T, Glick M, Boury D, Robert E, Napior J, Wardle R, Perut C, Calabro M, Glick R, Habu H, Sekino N, Vigier G, Andrea BD. Solid propulsion for space applications: an updated roadmap. Acta Astronaut. 2010;66:201–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pagoria PF, Lee GS, Mitchell AR, Schmidt RD. A review of energetic materials synthesis. Thermochim Acta. 2002;384:187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Talawar MB, Sivabalan R, Mukundan T, Muthurajan H, Sikder AK, Gandhe BR, Rao AS. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs). J Hazard Mater. 2009;161:589–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okamoto K, Kohga M, Hasue K. Thermal behavior and tensile property of PTHF/HTPB blend. Sci Technol Energ Mater. 2009;70:87–93.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wada Y, Seike Y, Tsuboi N, Hasegawa K, Kobayashi K, Nishioka M, Hori K. Combustion mechanism of tetra-ol glycidyl azide polymer. Sci Technol Energ Mater. 2008;69:143–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pandey M, Jha S, Kumar R, Mishra S, Jha RR. The pressure effect study on the burning rate of ammonium nitrate-HTPB-based propellant with the influence catalysts. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;107:135–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pourmortazavi SM, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Kohsari I, Hajimirsadeghi SS. Non-isothermal kinetic studies on thermal decomposition of energetic materials KNF and NTO. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10973-011-1845-6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu KZ, Chen YS, Wang M, Luo JA, Song JR, Zhao FQ, Hu RZ. Synthesis and thermal behavior of 4,5-dihydroxyl-2-(dinitromethylene)-imidazolidine (DDNI). J Therm Anal Calorim. 2011;105:293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Venkatachalam S, Santhosh G, Nian KN. An overview on synthetic routes and properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and other dinitramide salts. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2004;29:178–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Santhosh G, Ghee AH. Synthesis and kinetic analysis of isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide prills. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;94:263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thomas H, Pontius H, Aniol J, Birke C, Leisinger K, Reihard W. Ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-prilling, coating, and characterization. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2009;34:231–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Teipel U, Heintz T, Krause HH. Crystallization of spherical ammonium dinitramide (ADN) particles. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2000;25:81–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bottaro JC, Schmidt RJ, Penwell PE, Ross DS. World Intellectual Property Organization, International Application Number PCT/US91/04268, Dec 26, 1991.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bottaro JC, Penwell PE, Schmitt RJ. 1,1,3,3-Tetraoxo-1,2,3-triazapropene anion, a new oxy anion of nitrogen: the dinitramide anion and its salts. J Am Chem Soc. 1997;119:9405–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pak Z. Some ways to higher environmental safety of solid rocket propellant application. In: Proceedings of the AIAA/SAE/AS-MEASEE 29th Joint Propulsion Conf and Exhibition. Monterey, CA; 1993.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matsunaga H, Yoshino S, Kumasaki M, Habu H, Miyake A. Aging characteristics of the energetic oxidizer ammonium dinitramide. Sci Technol Energ Mater. 2011;72:131–5.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Klerk WPC, Popescu C, van der Heijden AEDM. Study on the decomposition kinetics of FOX-7 and HNF. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2003;72:955–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boers MN, de Klerk WPC. Lifetime prediction of EC, DPA, akardite II and MNA stabilized triple base propellants, comparison of heat generation rate and stabilizer consumption. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2005;30:356–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Klerk WPC, Colpa W, van Ekeren PJ. Ageing studies of magnesium–sodium nitrate pyrotechnic compositions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2006;85:203–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krabbendam-LaHaye ELM, de Klerk WPC, Krämer RE. The kinetic behaviour and thermal stability of commercially available explosives. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2005;80:495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eroglu MS. Thermoanalytical life time testing of energetic poly(glycidyl azide) and its precursor, poly(epichlorodydrin). Polym Bull. 1998;41:69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Östmark H, Bemm U, Langlet A, Sanden R, Wingborg N. The properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN): part 1, basic properties and spectroscopic data. J Energ Mater. 2000;18:123–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wingborg N. Ammonium dinitramide–water: interaction and properties. J Chem Eng Data. 2006;51:1582–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oxley JC, Smith JL, Zheng W, Rogers E, Coburn MD. Thermal decomposition studies on ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and 15N and 2H isotopomers. J Phys Chem A. 1997;101:5646–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jones DEG, Kwok QSM, Vachon M, Badeen C, Ridley W. Characterization of ADN and ADN-based propellants. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2005;30:140–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions, AKTS-Thermokinetics Software and AKTS-Thermal Safety Software. Accessed 8 March 2012.
  27. 27.
    Roduit B, Borgeat Ch, Berger B, Folly P, Andres H, Schädeli U, Vogelsanger B. Up-scaling of DSC data of high energetic materials. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2006;85:195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Friedman HL. Kinetics of thermal degradation of char-forming plastics from thermogravimetry. Application to a phenolic plastic. J Polym Sci Part C. 1963;6:183–95.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ozawa T. Applicability of Friedman plot. J Therm Anal. 1986;31:546–51.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bunte G, Neumann H, Antes J, Krause HH. Analysis of ADN, its precursor and possible by-products using ion chromatography. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2002;27:119–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Russell TP, Stern AG, Koppes WM, Bedford CD. Thermal decomposition and stabilization of ammonium dinitramide. In: Proceedings of 29th JANNAF combustion subcommittee meeting. 1990; 593-II:339–345.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gordon S, McBride BJ. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Washington, DC: NASA Reference Publication 1311; 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Division for Space Propulsion and PropellantsInstitute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)SagamiharaJapan

Personalised recommendations