Thermal behavior of new oxidizer ammonium dinitramide
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Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is a promising new oxidizer for solid propellants because of its high oxygen balance and high energy content, and halogen-free combustion products. One of the characteristics needed for solid propellants is stability. Heat, light, and moisture are factors affecting stability during storage, manufacture, and use. For practical use of ADN as a solid propellant, clarification of the mechanism of decomposition by these factors is needed to be able to predict lifetime. This study focused on thermal decomposition of ADN. Exothermal behavior of ADN decomposition was measured by isothermal tests using high-sensitive calorimetry (TAM) and non-isothermal tests using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Based on these results, analysis of the decomposition kinetics was conducted. The activation energy determined by TAM tests was lower than that from DSC tests. Thus, the decomposition path in TAM tests was different from that in DSC tests. The amount of ADN decomposition predicted from TAM tests was closer to that found under real storage conditions than the amount of decomposition predicted from DSC tests. Non-isothermal tests may not be able to precisely predict the lifetime of materials with a decomposition mechanism that changes with temperature, such as ADN. The lifetime predicted from DSC results was much longer than that from TAM tests especially at low temperature. It is necessary to use isothermal tests to predict the long-term stability at low temperature.
KeywordsAging Ammonium dinitramide Thermal decomposition Lifetime prediction
The authors are grateful to Dr. Yuji Wada and Dr. Yusuke Wada of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology of Japan for their fruitful discussions, and also to Hosoya Pyro-Engineering Co., Ltd. for providing samples.
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