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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 107, Issue 3, pp 1093–1103 | Cite as

Non-isothermal oxidation kinetics of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes up to 1273 K in ambient

  • Soumya Sarkar
  • Probal Kr. Das
Article

Abstract

Non-isothermal oxidation kinetics of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied using thermogravimetry up to 1273 K in ambient using multiple heating rates. One single heating rate based model-fitting technique and four multiple heating rates based model-free isoconversional methods were used for this purpose. Depending on nanotube structure and impurity content, average activation energy (E a), pre-exponential factor (A), reaction order (n), and degradation mechanism changed considerably. For multi-walled CNTs, E a and A evaluated using model-fitting technique were ranged from 142.31 to 178.19 kJ mol−1, respectively, and from 1.71 × 105 to 5.81 × 107 s−1, respectively, whereas, E a for single-walled CNTs ranged from 83.84 to 148.68 kJ mol−1 and A from 2.55 × 102 to 1.18 × 107 s−1. Although, irrespective of CNT type, the model-fitting method resulted in a single kinetic triplet i.e., E a, A, and reaction mechanism, model-free isoconversional methods suggested that thermal oxidation of these nanotubes could be either a simple single-step mechanism with almost constant activation energy throughout the reaction span or a complex process involving multiple mechanisms that offered varying E a with extent of conversion. Criado method was employed to predict degradation mechanism(s) of these CNTs.

Keywords

Carbon nanotube TG Non-isothermal kinetics Model-fitting Isoconversional Electron microscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their sincere gratitude to the Director, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CG & CRI), India for his kind permission to publish this study. The authors are also grateful to the members of Analytical Facility Division and Materials Characterization Unit of CG & CRI, India for their extensive help in carrying out all the TEM analysis and TG experiments, respectively. The first author acknowledges the financial support of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Non-oxide Ceramic and Composite DivisionCentral Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR)KolkataIndia

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