Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp 27–31 | Cite as

The effect of specific surface area of TiO2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate



The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) is considered to be the first step in the combustion of AP-based composite propellants. In this report, the effect of the specific surface area of titanium oxide (TiO2) catalysts on the thermal decomposition characteristics of AP was examined with a series of thermal analysis experiments. It was clear that the thermal decomposition temperature of AP decreased when the specific surface area of TiO2 increased. It was also possible that TiO2 influences the frequency factor of AP decomposition because there was no observable effect on the activation energy.


Ammonium perchlorate Specific surface area Thermal decomposition Titanium oxide 



This research was supported by the Technical Research & Development Institute at the Ministry of Defense. We would also like to acknowledge Professor Kohga of the National Defense Academy for his assistance and advice on performing specific surface area measurements.


  1. 1.
    Fujimura K, Miyake A. Sci Technol Energ Mater. 2008;69:149.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krishnan S, Jeenu R. Combustion characteristics of AP/HTPB propellants with burning rate modifiers. J Propuls Power. 1992;8:748–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chakravarthy SR, Price EW, Sigmant RK. Mechanism of burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants by ferric oxide. J Propuls Power. 1997;13:471–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fong CW, Hamshere BL. The mechanism of burning rate catalysis in. Composite HTPB-AP propellant combustion. Combust Flame. 1986;65:61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fong CW, Hamshere BL. The mechanism of burning rate catalysis in composite propellants by transition-metal complexes. Combust Flame. 1986;65:71–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dubey BL, Nath N, Tripathi A, Tiwari N. Catalysed. combustion of ammonium perchlorate, polystyrene and their composite propellants. Indian J Eng Mater Sci. 1994;1:341–9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pearson GS. Composite propellant catalysts: copper chromate and chromite. Combust Flame. 1970;14:73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patil PR, Krishnamurthy VN, Joshi SS. Differential scanning calorimetric study of HTPB based composite propellants in presence of nano ferric oxide. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2006;6:442–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li W, Cheng H. Cu-Cr-O nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization as catalysts for solid state propellants. Solid State Sci. 2007;9:750–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Small JL, Stephens MA, Deshpande S, Peterson EL, Seal S. Proceedings of 20th international colloquium on the dynamics of explosions and reactive systems, Montreal, July 31–August 5, 2005.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pivkina A, Frolov Yu, Ivanov D. Nanosized components of energetic systems: structure, thermal behavior, and combustion. Combust Expl Shock Waves. 2007;43:51–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    van der Heijden AEDM, Leeuwenburgh AB. HNF/HTPB propellants: influence of HNF particle size on ballistic properties. Combust Flame. 2009;156:1359–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shen SH, Chen SI, Wu BH. The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) containing a burning-rate modifier. Thermochim Acta. 1993;223:135–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rocco JAFF, Lima JES, Frutuoso AG, Iha K, Ionashiro M, Matos JR, et al. Thermal degradation of a composite solid propellant examined by DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;75:551–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Longuet B, Gillard P. Experimental investigation on the heterogeneous kinetic process of the low thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate particles. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 2009;34:59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boldyrev VV. Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Thermochim Acta. 2006;443:1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Halawy SA, Al-Shihry SS. Role of the acidic-basic characters of some metal oxides in the pyrolysis of ammonium perchlorate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1999;55:833–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen L-J, Li G-S, Qi P, Li L-P. Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate activated via addition of NiO nanocrystals. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;92:765–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ozawa T. Kinetic analysis of derivative curves in thermal analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1970;2:301–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations