Detection of copper(II) sulfate’s uniformity and its thermal behavior in flammability of cotton fabric

Spectrophotometric and TG analysis
  • S. M. Mostashari
  • Y. Kamali Nia
Regular Papers Organics/Polymers


Blue vitriol (copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate), CuSO4·5H2O has been chosen and investigated for its effectiveness as a flame-retardant, when impregnated into cotton fabric (cotton with a plain structure; woven 180 g m−2, with 22 numbers of yarns per 10 mm). Using the vertical flame test, the extent of resistance to burning of the specimens has been determined. The impregnation was accomplished via dipping and stirring of bone-dried, weighed fabrics into the individual and suitable concentrations of the salt at room temperature. Afterwards the samples were squeeze rolled and dried horizontally at 110°C for 30 min in an oven and cooled in a desiccator and reweighed with an analytical precision. They were then kept under ordinary conditions overnight prior the fulfillment of the vertical flame test. The efficient quantities of the aforesaid salt expressed in g per 100 g dry fabric have been determined in an average figure of 12.75%. Estimation of uniformity in a selected sample was carried out via a spectrophotometer and results are in favor of the heterogeneous distribution of the salt in the fabric’s middle sectors. However initial and final parts of specimen showed to be rather uniformed. Thermogravimetric analysis of the pure cotton and the treated ones with insufficient and effective amounts of the salt were fulfilled and their thermograms were compared and commented. The results obtained for the effect of copper(II) sulfate comply with ‘The Dust or Wall Effect Theory’. This action is also assigned to the condensed phase retardation.


condensed phase retardation copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate dust or wall effect theory flame-retardancy flammability thermogravimetry 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryFaculty of Science, Gilan UniversityRashtIran

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