Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 513–520 | Cite as

Influence of the spin acceleration time on the properties of ZnO:Ga thin films deposited by sol–gel method

  • M. Sbeta
  • A. Atilgan
  • A. Atli
  • A. Yildiz
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for optical, photonic and optoelectronic applications


A detailed study of the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the spin-coated Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films in which these properties are altered by varying the spin acceleration time (tacc) was undertaken. The results showed that, by varying tacc, there is no significant variation in crystal size, and band gap energy of the films, while some physical parameters such as strain \(\left( \varepsilon \right)\), surface roughness (RMS), and porosity (P) are remarkably varied. By increasing tacc from 0 to 8 s, \(\varepsilon\), RMS, and P, were increased by 230, 83, and 49%, respectively. Electrical data were presented to demonstrate unambiguously that the variation in the films resistivity (ρ) is closely connected to the change in these parameters. To explain these findings, a simple formula was proposed in the investigated range of tacc, which demonstrated that ρ is more related to \(\varepsilon\) and P, and then to RMS.


Zinc oxide Ga dopant Spin coating Spin acceleration time Resistivity 



This work is supported by the Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University BAP under the project number 3746.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesAnkara Yıldırım Beyazıt UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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