Advertisement

Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 493–504 | Cite as

Optical, mechanical and electrical properties of LSCF–SDC composite cathode prepared by sol–gel assisted rotary evaporation technique

  • Muhammed Ali S. A.
  • Mustafa Anwar
  • Nor Fatina Raduwan
  • Andanastuti Muchtar
  • Mahendra Rao Somalu
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for energy, environment and building applications

Abstract

La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) is a perovskite-type oxide that exhibits excellent mixed ionic–electronic conducting properties and is a suitable cathode material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. This study investigates the microstructural, optical, mechanical, and electrical properties of an LSCF–samarium-doped ceria (SDC) composite cathode. LSCF–SDC composite cathode powders were prepared by mixing 50 wt% SDC electrolyte with LSCF cathode powders obtained by the rotary evaporation technique. The band gap of the prepared powders was determined via diffuse reflectance UV–visible spectroscopy. The chemical composition, mechanical properties, and electrochemical properties of the sintered pellets were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, Vickers hardness, and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis showed that phase purity was only 96%. Moreover, a small fraction of tetragonal phase impurity was observed on the LSCF powders. Impurities significantly affected the phase stability and microstructure of the LSCF–SDC composite cathode. The addition of the SDC electrolyte enhanced the densification of the composite cathode, thereby improving mechanical properties. However, the addition of SDC exerted different effects on the DC electrical conductivity and area-specific resistance (ASR) of the composite cathode. At 800 °C, the ASR value of the LSCF was only 2% that of the LSCF–SDC composite cathode. Overall, the electrical properties of the LSCF–SDC composite cathode are closely related to the crystal structure, purity, and microstructure of LSCF cathode powders.

Keywords

Rotary evaporation LSCF Composite cathode Band gap Electrical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2015/TK10/UKM/01/2). The authors would like to extend their gratitude to the Center for Research and Instrumentation Management for the support and to UKM for excellent testing equipment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Mahmud LS, Muchtar A, Somalu MR (2017) Challenges in fabricating planar solid oxide fuel cells: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 72:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Orera VM, Laguna-Bercero MA, Larrea A (2014) Fabrication methods and performance in fuel cell and steam electrolysis operation modes of small tubular solid oxide fuel cells: a review. Front Energy Res 2:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hussain AM, Pan K-J, Robinson IA et al. (2016) Stannate-based ceramic oxide as anode materials for oxide-ion conducting low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. J Electrochem Soc 163:F1198–F1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Szymczewska D, Karczewski J, Chrzan A, Jasinski P (2017) CGO as a barrier layer between LSCF electrodes and YSZ electrolyte fabricated by spray pyrolysis for solid oxide fuel cells. Solid State Ion 302:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun C, Hui R, Roller J (2010) Cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells: a review. J Solid State Electrochem 14:1125–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jamale AP, Jadhav ST, Dubal SU et al. (2015) Studies on the percolation limit of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3–δ–Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 nanocomposites for solid oxide fuel cells application. J Phys Chem Solids 85:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dutta A, Mukhopadhyay J, Basu RN (2009) Combustion synthesis and characterization of LSCF-based materials as cathode of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. J Eur Ceram Soc 29:2003–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu Q, Huang Dping, Zhang F et al. (2008) Structure, electrical conducting and thermal expansion properties of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2 composite cathodes. J Alloy Compd 454:460–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu J, Co AC, Paulson S, Birss VI (2006) Oxygen reduction at sol–gel derived La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Fe0.2O3 cathodes. Solid State Ion 177:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baharuddin NA, Muchtar A, Somalu MR, Seyednezhad M (2017) Influence of mixing time on the purity and physical properties of SrFe0.5Ti0.5O3-δ powders produced by solution combustion. Powder Technol 313:382–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asadi AA, Behrouzifar A, Iravaninia M et al. (2012) Preparation and oxygen permeation of LSCF perovskite-type membranes: experimental study and mathematical modeling. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:3069–3080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choe Y-J, Lee K-J, Hwang H-J (2016) Cr poisoning on Nd2Ni0.95Cu0.05O4+δ cathode for solid oxide fuel cells. Arch Metall Mater 61:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Promsuy S, Tangtrakarn A, Mongkolkachit C et al. (2016) A new sol–gel precursor for preparation of La0.56Sr0.42Co0.2Fe0.8O3–δ film. J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 78:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim Y-M, Kim-Lohsoontorn P, Baek S-W, Bae J (2011) Electrochemical performance of unsintered Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3–δ, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3–δ, and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3–δ cathodes for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:3138–3146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu W, Zhao Z, Tu B et al. (2015) Enhanced performance and stability of interlayer free La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2-δ cathode for solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 40:4861–4867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qiang F, Sun K, Zhang N et al. (2007) Characterization of electrical properties of GDC doped A-site deficient LSCF based composite cathode using impedance spectroscopy. J Power Sources 168:338–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deshmukh R, Wagh P, Naik J (2016) Solvent evaporation and spray drying technique for micro- and nanospheres/particles preparation: a review. Dry Technol 34:1758–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen G, Wang W (2007) Role of freeze drying in nanotechnology. Dry Technol 25:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamid NA, Muchtar A, Daud WRW, Muhamad N (2009) Pencirian mikrostruktur katod La-Sr-Co-Fe-O bagi sel fuel oksida pepejal bersuhu sederhana (IT-SOFC). Sains Malays 38:857–861Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dieffenbacher A, Pocklington WD (1991) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives, 7th edn. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mosiałek M, Dudek M, Wojewoda-Budka J (2013) Composite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3/Ag cathode for SOFCs with Ce0.8Sm 0.2O1.9 electrolyte. Arch Metall Mater 58:275–281Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pakzad A, Salamati H, Kameli P, Talaei Z (2010) Preparation and investigation of electrical and electrochemical properties of lanthanum-based cathode for solid oxide fuel cell. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:9398–9400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vargas RA, Chiba R, Andreoli M, Seo ESM (2007) Synthesis and characterization of Nd1-xSrxMnO3 and La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3 Powders. Rev Matér 12:8–21Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumar S, Dwivedi GD, Joshi AG et al. (2017) Study of structural, dielectric, optical properties and electronic structure of Cr-doped LaInO3 perovskite nanoparticles. Mater Charact 131:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Richter J, Holtappels P, Graule T et al. (2009) Materials design for perovskite SOFC cathodes. Mon fur Chem 140:985–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abdul Samat A, Somalu MR, Muchtar A et al. (2016) LSC cathode prepared by polymeric complexation method for proton-conducting SOFC application. J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 78:382–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Perry NH, Ishihara T (2016) Roles of bulk and surface chemistry in the oxygen exchange kinetics and related properties of mixed conducting perovskite oxide electrodes. Materials 9:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ahmad SI, Mohammed T, Bahafi A, Suresh MB (2017) Effect of Mg doping and sintering temperature on structural and morphological properties of samarium-doped ceria for IT-SOFC electrolyte. Appl Nanosci 7:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu M, Liu Z, Liu M, Nie L (2013) Fabrication and characterization of functionally-graded LSCF cathodes by tape casting. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:1082–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang J, Huang X, Zhang H et al. (2017) The effect of powder grain size on the microstructure and electrical properties of 8 mol% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2. RSC Adv 7:39153–39159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Köferstein R, Jäger L, Ebbinghaus SG (2013) Magnetic and optical investigations on LaFeO3 powders with different particle sizes and corresponding ceramics. Solid State Ion 249-50:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    García-López E, Marcì G, Puleo F et al. (2015) La1–xSrxCo1–yFeyO3–δ: preparation, characterization and solar photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B Environ 178:218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li J, Sun L, Shenai PM et al. (2015) A first-principles study of oxygen vacancy induced changes in structural, electronic and magnetic properties of La2/3Su1/3MnO3. J Alloy Compd 649:973–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen K, Lü Z, Ai N et al. (2007) Effect of SDC-impregnated LSM cathodes on the performance of anode-supported YSZ films for SOFCs. J Power Sources 167:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen Z, Wang X, Giuliani F, Atkinson A (2015) Analyses of microstructural and elastic properties of porous SOFC cathodes based on focused ion beam tomography. J Power Sources 273:486–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen Z, Wang X, Atkinson A, Brandon N (2016) Spherical indentation of porous ceramics: cracking and toughness. J Eur Ceram Soc 36:3473–3480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    da Conceição L, Silva AM, Ribeiro NFP, Souza MMVM (2011) Combustion synthesis of La0.7Sr0.3Co0.5Fe0.5O3 (LSCF) porous materials for application as cathode in IT-SOFC. Mater Res Bull 46:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu YC, Lin CC (2014) The microstructures and property analysis of aliovalent cations (Sm 3+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba 2+) co-doped ceria-base electrolytes after an aging treatment. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:7988–8001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zeng P, Ran R, Chen Z et al. (2007) Significant effects of sintering temperature on the performance of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 oxygen selective membranes. J Memb Sci 302:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muhammed Ali SA, Anwar M, Baharuddin NA et al. (2018) Enhanced electrochemical performance of LSCF cathode through selection of optimum fabrication parameters. J Solid State Electrochem 22:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Perry Murray E, Sever MJ, Barnett SA (2002) Electrochemical performance of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-(Ce,Gd)O3 composite cathodes. Solid State Ion 148:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shaikh SPS, Somalu MR, Muchtar A (2016) Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine–nitrate process. J Phys Chem Solids 98:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hodge I, Ingram MD, West AR (1976) Impedance and modulus spectroscopy of polycrystalline solid electrolytes. J Electroanal Chem 74:125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xiao G, Liu Q, Zhao F et al. (2011) Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 as cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.87Mg0.13O3 electrolyte. J Electrochem Soc 158:B455–B460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cesário MR, MacEdo DA, Martinelli AE et al. (2012) Synthesis, structure and electrochemical performance of cobaltite-based composite cathodes for IT-SOFC. Cryst Res Technol 47:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    da Conceição L, Silva CRB, Ribeiro NFP, Souza MMVM (2009) Influence of the synthesis method on the porosity, microstructure and electrical properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 cathode materials. Mater Charact 60:1417–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.U.S.-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in EnergyNational University of Sciences and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Centre for Materials Engineering and Smart Manufacturing, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia

Personalised recommendations