Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 351–364 | Cite as

Color and fastness of natural dyes encapsulated by a sol-gel process for dyeing natural and synthetic fibers

  • Cristiane dos Santos
  • Luis Fernando Wentz Brum
  • Robelsa de Fátima Vasconcelos
  • Sérgio Knorr Velho
  • João Henrique Zimnoch dos Santos
Original Paper: Industrial and technological applications of sol-gel and hybrid materials


Natural dyes, namely, indigo carmine, cochineal carmine, curcumin and annatto, were encapsulated in silica by a sol-gel method and applied in the dyeing of different textile fibers by exhaustion. For comparative reasons, dyeing using the free (non-encapsulated) bare dyes was also carried out. The hybrid materials were analyzed by a set of techniques to investigate their elemental, structural, textural and morphological properties, and the results showed that it was possible to obtain stable natural dyes for applications in textile dyeing. The silica-structured dyes showed better affinities with the fibers (WO, PA, PAC and PET) in dyeing with cochineal carmine, while cotton (CO) showed better affinities with the encapsulated curcumin and annatto dyes. The performances of the encapsulated dyes were evaluated by color and washing fastness measurements and resulted in improved dye absorption and wash fastness properties. The color change and color transfer measurements of the encapsulated dyes were better (rated at 4–5 on a scale of 1–5) compared to the bare dyes.


Natural dyes Sol-gel Dyeing textile Wash fastness Silica 



MCT/CNPq – RHAE financial support Project no. 550536/2011-5. LNLS - Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM). This work was also partially financed by CNPq and FAPERGS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristiane dos Santos
    • 1
  • Luis Fernando Wentz Brum
    • 1
  • Robelsa de Fátima Vasconcelos
    • 1
  • Sérgio Knorr Velho
    • 1
  • João Henrique Zimnoch dos Santos
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Química, UFRGSPorto AlegreBrazil

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