Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 226–238 | Cite as

Improving imprinted shape cavities of molecularly imprinted sol–gel host matrix with minimal relaxation for sensing of creatinine

  • Qian Yee Ang
  • Florence Chan
  • Pei Chin Tan
  • Siew Chun Low
Original Paper: Sol-gel, hybrids and solution chemistries


Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is of great attention in biomimetic recognition systems due to its selective molecular recognition towards any guest of interest. In this study, creatinine (Cre) was eluted from MIP via physical means to create the best molecular fitting to Cre. Among the polar eluents, methanol could overcome the intermolecular attractions between Cre and aluminium ion (Al3+) while conserving the Cre-shape memory to optimum with the minimal relaxation of the sol–gel host matrix simultaneously. With regard to the optimised shape complementarity of MIP, the solvation effect was scrutinised to reveal the interactions with Cre and MIP/NIP, respectively. Again, the Cre-adsorption in methanol compromised both the binding magnitude and imprinting factor reasonably the best at 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g−1 and 2.00 ± 0.09, respectively. Nevertheless, MIP was capable of selective uptake of Cre even in the presence of interfering analogues, i.e., creatine (Cr), N-hydroxysuccinimide (N-hyd), and 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by competitive selectivity coefficients of 3.01 ± 1.11, 3.75 ± 0.57, and 5.24 ± 4.59, respectively. In overall, MIP has proven its feasibility as a selective sorbent in capturing the molecule of interest with good recognition ability.

Relaxation of sol-gel host matrix upon effective extraction of Cre template.


Molecularly imprinted polymer Sol–gel host matrix Creatinine Template removal Minimal relaxation Shape complementarity 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from ScienceFund (305/PJKIMIA/6013393). QYA is financially assisted by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2018_4608_MOESM1_ESM.docx (854 kb)
Supplementary information


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia PerlisPadang BesarMalaysia

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