Synthesis of novel nanostructured bredigite–amoxicillin scaffolds for bone defect treatment: cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity
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Bone infections in human beings are an essentially destructive problem with crucial clinical and economic effects; thus, incorporation of antibiotics such as amoxicillin (AMX) into the scaffold was developed as an effective treatment for bone infections. In this respect, we develop new nanostructured bredigite (Bre; Ca7MgSi4O16)–amoxicillin (AMX; α-amino-hydroxybenzyl-penicillin) scaffolds containing different concentrations of amoxicillin (0, 3, 5, and 10%) by using space holder method to assure bactericidal properties. The result depicted that the Bre–AMX scaffolds possess porosity of 80–82% with high compressive strength of 1.2–1.4 MPa and controlled antibiotic release for prevention of infection. Bre–(3–10%)AMX scaffolds were able to destroy Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, as well as effectively inhibit the growth of bacterial cells; in addition, the antibacterial activity of the AMX-loaded scaffolds augmented with the increase of the AMX concentration. Sustained drug release was detected from Bre–AMX scaffolds accompanied by initial burst release of 20% for 8 h, followed by a sustained release, which is favorable for bone infection treatment. These new Bre–(3–5%)AMX scaffolds possess excellent mechanical properties and antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity suggested as an appropriate alternative for bone infection treatment.
KeywordsBredigite scaffold Amoxicillin Cytocompatibility Drug release Antimicrobial activity
The authors would like to thank the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for providing financial support and facilities for this research.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.