Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 623–631 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of room temperature sol–gel-assisted transparent tin-doped magnesium oxide nanoparticles’ protective coating

  • Shumaila Islam
  • Noriah Bidin
  • M. Alam Saeed
  • Saira Riaz
  • M. Aizat A. Bakar
  • Shahzad Naseem
  • Khaldoon Naji Abbas
  • Mohd Marsin Sanagi
Original Paper: Sol-gel, hybrids and solution chemistries


Using in-situ sol–gel processing, Sn-doped MgO2 nanofilm has been fabricated by spin-coating technique. Cracked and uneven distribution of particles in the composite can lead to premature failures and material cannot be used as protective coating. Therefore, homogeneous porous nanoparticles with average size 27 nm were obtained without any voids. A stoichiometric ratio of dopant and matrix with low average roughness 2.52 nm of the thin film was observed. Furthermore, the refractive index 1.30 and average film thickness 221 nm at wavelength 632.8 nm has been estimated with optical transparency up to 94 % in the visible range by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Band gap energy of 3.12 eV has also been estimated. The experimental findings show that the prepared nanoparticles can be used as protective coatings.

Graphical Abstract

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Sol–gel method Tin-doped magnesium oxide Structural and optical properties 



The authors would like to express their thank to the Government of Malaysia through grant FRGS vote 4F543 for the financial support in this project. Thanks are also due to UTM through RMC for awarding the postdoctoral fellowship to the first author.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shumaila Islam
    • 1
  • Noriah Bidin
    • 1
  • M. Alam Saeed
    • 2
  • Saira Riaz
    • 3
  • M. Aizat A. Bakar
    • 1
  • Shahzad Naseem
    • 3
  • Khaldoon Naji Abbas
    • 1
  • Mohd Marsin Sanagi
    • 4
  1. 1.Laser Centre, IbnuSina Institute for Scientific and Industrial ResearchUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Physics DepartmentUniversiti Teknology MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence in Solid State PhysicsUniversity of the Punjab, QACLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Faculty of Science, Chemistry DepartmentUniversiti Teknology MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

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