Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 320–331 | Cite as

Oxygen-containing/amino groups bifunctionalized SBA-15 toward efficient removal of methylene blue: kinetics, isotherm and mechanism analysis

  • Wen-Jing Qiao
  • Zhen-Zhen Wang
  • Shang-Ru Zhai
  • Zuo-Yi Xiao
  • Feng Zhang
  • Qing-Da An
Original Paper


Bifunctionalized SBA-15 with oxygen-containing/amino groups (NH2-SBA15-ox) has been synthesized using a sequential processing strategy: (1) direct conversion of P123 organic surfactant into a thin carbon layer on the interior framework of short-channeled SBA-15 (C-SBA-15), (2) as-prepared C-SBA-15 was then fully oxidized with (NH4)2S2O8 (C-SBA15-ox) and (3) the C-SBA15-ox was post-modified via treatment with APTMS, which created a high density of amino functional group mainly on the external surface of platelet particles. It was shown that bifunctionalized SBA-15 demonstrated much improved adsorption performance toward methylene blue under adsorption testing conditions. Specifically, the adsorption equilibrium time was significantly reduced from 180 min (initial SBA-15) to 60 min (C-SBA15-ox) and then to no more than 10 min (NH2-SBA15-ox); the maximum adsorption capacity was increased from 157 mg/g (initial SBA-15) to 379 mg/g (C-SBA15-ox) and then to 445 mg/g (NH2-SBA15-ox). In combination of short-channeled framework and bifunctionalized surface groups, the NH2-SBA15-ox should be considered as a potential adsorbent to remove other toxic substances from wastewater.

Graphical Abstract

Integration of oxygen-containing/amino functional surface group and platelet morphology endowed SBA-15-like sorbents with high affinity and fast adsorption kinetics toward methylene blue from aqueous solution.


Surface chemistry Adsorption Pore diameter Dye SBA-15 



Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21446001), the Program for Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University (LT2013012) and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (LJQ2014056) is highly appreciated.

Supplementary material

10971_2015_3779_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 2146 kb)


  1. 1.
    Hao OJ, Kim H, Chiang PC (2000) Decolorization of wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 30:449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tan BH, Teng TT, Omar AK (2000) Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride. Water Res 34:597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee JW, Choi SP, Thiruvenkatachari R (2006) Submerged microfiltration membrane coupled with alum coagulation/powdered activated carbon adsorption for complete decolorization of reactive dyes. Water Res 40:435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kagalkar AN, Jagtap UB, Jadhav JP (2009) Biotechnological strategies for phytoremediation of the sulfonated azo dye Direct Red 5B using Blumea malcolmii Hook. Bioresour Technol 100:4104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee DW, Hong WH, Hwang KY (2000) Removal of an organic dye from water using a predispersed solvent extraction. Sep Sci Technol 35:1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu CH, Wu JS, Chiu HC (2007) Removal of anionic reactive dyes from water using anion exchange membranes as adsorbers. Water Res 41:1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muruganandham M, Swaminathan M (2006) TiO2–UV photocatalytic oxidation of Reactive Yellow 14: effect of operational parameters. J Hazard Mater 135:78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fernandes A, Morao A, Magrinho M (2004) Electrochemical degradation of CI acid orange. Dyes Pigments 61:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hardcastle JL, McKeown RAJ, Compton RG (1999) The 20 kHz sonochemical degradation of trace cyanide and dye stuffs in aqueous media. New J Chem 23:845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang D, Liu H, Zheng Z (2013) Titanate-based adsorbents for radioactive ions entrapment from water. Nanoscale 5:2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ravi S, Selvaraj M, Park H (2014) Novel hierarchically dispersed mesoporous silica spheres: effective adsorbents for mercury from wastewater and a thermodynamic study. New J Chem 38:3899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moorthy MS, Seo DJ, Song HJ (2013) Magnetic mesoporous silica hybrid nanoparticles for highly selective boron adsorption. J Mater Chem A 1:12485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen SY, Cheng S (2007) Acid-free synthesis of mesoporous silica using triblock copolymer as template with the aid of salt and alcohol. Chem Mater 19:3041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen SY, Huang CY, Yokoi T (2012) Synthesis and catalytic activity of amino-functionalized SBA-15 materials with controllable channel lengths and amino loadings. J Mater Chem 22:2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kosuge K, Kubo S, Kikukawa N (2007) Effect of pore structure in mesoporous silicas on VOC dynamic adsorption/desorption performance. Langmuir 23:3095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen SY, Tang CY, Chuang WT (2008) A facile route to synthesizing functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials with platelet morphology and short mesochannels. Chem Mater 20:3906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maria Chong AS, Zhao XS (2003) Functionalization of SBA-15 with APTES and characterization of functionalized materials. J Phys Chem B 107:12650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu J, Feng X, Fryxell GE (1998) Hybrid mesoporous materials with functionalized monolayers. Adv Mater 10:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu N, Assink RA, Smarsly B (2003) Synthesis and characterization of highly ordered functional mesoporous silica thin films with positively chargeable–NH2 groups. Chem Commun 10:1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim YS, Guo XF, Kim GJ (2009) Highly active new chiral Co (III) salen catalysts immobilized by electrostatic interaction with sulfonic acid linkages on ordered mesoporous SBA-16 silica. Chem Commun 28:4296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schiel JE, Mallik R, Soman S (2006) Applications of silica supports in affinity chromatography. J Sep Sci 29:719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sayari A, Han BH, Yang Y (2004) Simple synthesis route to monodispersed SBA-15 silica rods. J Am Chem Soc 126:14348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Al-Oweini R, Aghyarian S, El-Rassy H (2012) Immobilized polyoxometalates onto mesoporous organically-modified silica aerogels as selective heterogeneous catalysts of anthracene oxidation. J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 61:541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moreno-Castilla C, Carrasco-Marin F, Mueden A (1997) The creation of acid carbon surfaces by treatment with (NH4)2S2O8. Carbon 35:1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang X, Chan JCC, Tseng YH (2006) Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of ordered SBA-15 materials containing high loading of diamine functional groups. Micropor Mesopor Mater 95:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Han L, Ruan J, Li Y (2007) Synthesis and characterization of the amphoteric amino acid bifunctional mesoporous silica. Chem Mater 19:2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moreno J, Sherrington DC (2008) Well-defined mesostructured organic–inorganic hybrid materials via atom transfer radical grafting of oligomethacrylates onto SBA-15 pore surfaces. Chem Mater 20:4468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen D, Li Z, Wan Y (2006) Anionic surfactant induced mesophase transformation to synthesize highly ordered large-pore mesoporous silica structures. J Mater Chem 16:1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan X, Chen J, Xue Q (2010) Synthesis and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles confined within mesoporous silica. Micropor Mesopor Mater 135:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Batzias FA, Sidiras DK (2007) Simulation of dye adsorption by beech sawdust as affected by pH. J Hazard Mater 141:668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Foo KY, Hameed BH (2011) Microwave assisted preparation of activated carbon from pomelo skin for the removal of anionic and cationic dyes. Chem Eng J 173:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gupta VK, Suhas Ali I (2004) Removal of rhodamine B, fast green, and methylene blue from wastewater using red mud, an aluminum industry waste. Ind Eng Chem Res 43:1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S (2003) Color removal from wastewater using low-cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huang SH, Chen DH (2009) Rapid removal of heavy metal cations and anions from aqueous solutions by an amino-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 163:174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khambhaty Y, Mody K, Basha S (2009) Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of hexavalent chromium by dead fungal biomass of marine Aspergillus niger. Chem Eng J 145:489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dinu MV, Dragan ES (2010) Evaluation of Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions removal from aqueous solution using a novel chitosan/clinoptilolite composite: kinetics and isotherms. Chem Eng J 160:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Uçar S, Erdem M, Tay T (2009) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl2 activation. Appl Surf Sci 255:8890CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Light Industry and Chemical EngineeringDalian Polytechnic UniversityDalianChina

Personalised recommendations