Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 313–322 | Cite as

Entrapment of phenol red (PR) pH indicator into sol–gel matrix in presence of some surfactants

  • Issa M. El-Nahhal
  • Jacques Livage
  • Shehata M. Zourab
  • Fawzi S. Kodeh
  • Asma Al swearky
Original Paper


Sol–gel entrapment method was used to entrap phenol red (PR) pH indicator into mesoporous silica materials, in presence of ethanediyl-1,2-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide (Gemini 12-2-12), alkyl hydroxyethyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (HY, R = 12–14) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants. The use of surfactants has modified the morphology and porosity of silica host matrix for better sensing capabilities. The physical interactions of the different surfactants between PR molecules and host mesoporous silica network are well explained. The presence of SDS, Gemini 12-2-12 and HY surfactants has shifted pKa values of to less acidic and more basic in comparison with that of free PR and PR-entrapped silica system.

Graphical Abstract

Behavior of PR-entrapped porous silica in presence of Gemini 12-2-12.


Phenol red Sol–gel pH sensor Sol–gel entrapment method Surfactants Sol–gel matrix Entrapment of pH indicators 



The authors would like to thank the Chemistry Department at Al-Azhar University of Gaza for its generous support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Issa M. El-Nahhal
    • 1
  • Jacques Livage
    • 2
  • Shehata M. Zourab
    • 3
  • Fawzi S. Kodeh
    • 1
  • Asma Al swearky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAl-Azhar UniversityGazaPalestine
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de ParisUniversité Piere Curie-Paris 6, CNRS, College de FranceParisFrance
  3. 3.University of PalestineGazaPalestine

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