Microwave assisted non-aqueous sol–gel synthesis of LiNiPO4 and its copper doped analogues
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A series of single phase LiNi(1−x)CuxPO4 (0 < x < 0.99) was successfully synthesized by non-aqueous sol–gel method followed by microwave (MW) annealing. The advantage of MW short span annealing is obvious from the nanometer sized particles compared to reported microparticles. XRD, IR and SEM studies were conducted to investigate the phase purity, crystal structure, lattice parameters and morphology respectively. It was found that 10 min of microwave annealing is a time and cost effective approach to produce single phase compositions at low temperature. X-ray studies confirmed the single phase formation of pure and the doped analogues which were found to be iso-structural with the parent LiNiPO4 compound. The cell parameters with the addition of copper content were in accord with the Vegards law. Impedance studies pointed toward enhanced electrical properties of doped samples as compared to the undoped one.
KeywordsLithium nickel phosphate XRD Microwave annealing Impedance spectroscopy
The authors are thankful to the Dr Paul A. Connor, Prof. Dr. John T.S. Irvine, School of Chemistry University of St Andrews UK and to Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad for URF grant and lab support.
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